Wednesday, July 30, 2008

List of Catholic Miracles

Update 3/26/2010: This post only covers the 11th through 13th centuries. For more info see the Wonderworkers blog and the key post On Miracles Outside the Church.

The following is a list of Catholic miracles, many of which (in green font) have directly confirmed distinctive Catholic truths; e.g. the genuine apparition of the Theotókos at Lourdes confirmed the Immaculate Conception and the myriad Eucharistic miracles have confirmed that the Eastern Orthodox are wrong to reject the use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist.

Eucharistic Miracles
Eucharist in Amsterdam, Holland [1345] – (1) Eucharist thrown into fire overnight is not burnt or damaged
Eucharist in Bagno di Romagna, Italy [1412] – (1)
Eucharist in Betania, Venezuela [1991] – (1) consecrated host bled on Feast of the Immaculate Conception
Eucharist in Blanot, France [3/31/1331] – (1)
Eucharist in Bolsena Orvieto, Italy [1263] – (1)
Eucharist in Cascia, Italy [1930] – (1)
Eucharist in Lanciano, Italy [700] – (1) unleavened bread turned to human flesh and AB blood of Christ
Eucharist in Marlboro, New Jersey [4/10/1994-7/16/1994] – (1)
Eucharist in Methuen, Massachusetts [1995] – (1)
Eucharist in Rimini, Italy [1225] – (1) hungry mule did not go eat the food but instead knelt down and kept his head bowed in front of the host
Eucharist in Santarem, Portugal [1247] – (1)

Eucharist in Sienna, Italy [8/17/1730] - (1)

Eucharist in Stich, Germany [6/9/1970-7/14/1970] – (1)

Marian Miracles
Our Lady of Akita, Japan [1973] – (1)
Our Lady of Amsterdam, Holland [1945] - (1)
Our Lady of Banneux, Belgium [1933] – (1)
Our Lady of Beauraing, Belgium [1932] – (1)
Our Lady of Betania, Venezuela [1976] – (1)
Our Lady of Cuapa, Nicaragua [1980] – (1)
Our Lady of Fatima, Portugal [1917] - (1)
Our Lady of Good Success, Ecuador [] – (1)
Our Lady of Guadalupe, Mexico [1531] – (1)
Our Lady of Kibèho, Rwanda [1981] – (1)
Our Lady of Knock, Ireland [1879] – (1)
Our Lady of La Salette [] – (1)
Our Lady of La'Vang, Vietnam [1798] – (1)
Our Lady of Lourdes, France [1858] - (1)
Our Lady of Mount Carmel in Aylesford, England [1251] - (1)
Our Lady of San Nicolas, Argentina [1983] – (1)
Our Lady of the Miraculous Medal in Paris, France [1830] – (1)
Our Lady of the Rosary in Prouille, France [1208] – (1)

Ven. Maria Jesus Delgado (nun) [] – (1) incorrupt body

St. Sunniva of Norway (martyr) [d. 11th century] - (1) incorrupt body

11th Century
St. Adelaide of Guelders (abbess) [†2/5/1015] - (1)

Bl. Albert of Pontida (Benedictine abbot) [†5/1/1095] - (1)

St. Aldemar the Wise of Capua (Benedictine monk) [†3/24/1080] - (1) famous for his miracles

St. Alferius of La Cava (Benedictine abbot who founded the Benedictine abbey Holy Trinity of La Cava under the Cluniac rule) [930-Holy Thursday of 1050] - (1) God healed him when, during a life-threatening illness, he promised to enter the religious life

St. Alfwold of Sherborne () [†3/25/1058] - (1)

St. Alphege of Winchester () [954-4/19/1012] - (1) incorrupt body

St. Amatus of Nusco () [1003-9/30/1093] - (1)

Bl. Amnichad of Fulda () [1/30/1043] - (1)

St. Anselm the Younger of Lucca () [1036-3/18/1086] - (1)

St. Ansfrid of Utrecht () [940-5/3/1010] - (1)

St. Anthony of Beroea () [†11th c.] - (1) incorrupt body; (2)

St. Aquilinus of Milan () [970-1/29/1015] - (1)

St. Arialdis of Milan (martyr) [1000-6/27/1066] - (1) incorrupt body

St. Arnulf of Soissons () [1040-8/14/1087] - (1)

St. Aurea of San Millán () [1042-3/11/1069] - (1)

St. Benedict of Szkalka () [†5/1/1012] - (1) incorrupt body

St. Bernard of Menthon () [923-6/15/1008] - (1)

St. Brithwald of Sarum (bishop) [†1/22/1045] - (1); (2)

St. Bruno of Würzburg () [1005-5/27/1045] - (1)

King St. Canute IV of Denmark () [†1/19/1086] - (1)

St. Casilda of Toledo (anchoress) [950-4/9/1050] - (1) healed by miraculous spring of San Vincenzo shrine in northern Spain; (2) when Muslims asked what she was carrying in her skirt, the bread turned to a bouquet of roses

St. Colman of Stockerau (monk-martyr) [d. 10/13/1012] - (1) miracles at his tomb; (2) incorrupt body despite hanging 18 months outside; (3) birds and beasts did not touch his body; (4) gallows scaffolding took root and grew green branches

Empress St. Cunegundes () [†3/3/1040] - (1)

St. Dominic of Silos (abbot who founded the Order of Preachers) [1000-12/10/1073] - (1) appeared to and interceded for the barren mother of St. Dominic de Guzmán so that she could have a child; (2) healings via prayer; (3) many posthumous miracles, especially ones concerned with pregnancy
St. Dominic of Sora () [951-1/22/1031] - (1)

St. Dorotheus the Younger (abbot) [†1000s] - (1)

St. Duthus of Ross (bishop) [1000-3/8/1065] - (1) body incorrupt for 495 years until its 1560 destruction by Protestants

King St. Edward the Confessor of England () [1003-1/5/1066] – (1) healed people by his touch; (2)
St. Emma of Bremen () [980-12/3/1038] - (1)

St. Eskil () [†6/13/1080] - (1)

St. Felix of Monte Cassino () [†1000] - (1)

St. Fulcran (Bishop of Lodève) [†2/13/1006] - (1)

St. Gaudentius of Ossero (bishop then Benedictine monk) [†5/31/1044] - (1)

St. Gerald of Sauve-Majeure () [†4/5/1095] - (1)

St. Gilduin of Dol (bishop-elect) [1052-1/27/1077] - (1) miracles at his tomb

St. Godelieve of Ghistelles () [1049-7/6/1070] - (1) posthumously cured congenital blindness of her step-daughter; (2) other posthumous miracles

St. Guy of Anderlecht (The Poor Man of Anderlecht) [950-9/12/1012] - (1) angels sometimes plowed for him so he could pray without being distracted; (2) as he died, a heavenly light shone on him and a voice from above said he was going to Heaven; (3) many miracles at his tomb
St. Hallvard () [1020-5/15/1043] - (1)

St. Heimrad () [†1019] - (1)

St. Herbert of Cologne (Archbishop of Cologne) [980-3/16/1021] - (1)

St. Iñigo of Oña () [†6/1/1057] - (1)

St. John Gualbert of Florence () [985-7/12/1073] - (1)

King St. Ladislaus I the Confessor of Hungary () [6/27/1040-7/29/1095] - (1) ; (2)

Pope St. Leo IX of Rome () [6/21/1002-4/19/1054] - (1)

Bl. Marianus Scotus () [†2/10/1088] - (1)

St. Nicholas Peregrinus () [1075-6/2/1094] - (1)

St. Odilo of Cluny () [962-1/3/1048] - (1)

King St. Olaf II of Norway (king & martyr of Norway) [995-7/29/1030] – (1) incorrupt body; (2) on the day he died a blind man regained his sight when he rubbed the saint's blood on his eyes; (3) nine miracles reported in the GeisliSt. Osburga () [d. 1016] - (1) ; (2) ; (3) ; (4)

St. Osmund of Seez (Bishop of Salisbury) [d. 12/4/1099] - (1)
St. Paternus of Abdinghof () [†4/13/1058] - (1)

St. Peter Damian (Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia & Doctor of the Church) [1007-2/21/1072] - (1)

St. Peter Igneus () [†11/11/1089] - (1)

St. Poppo () [978-1/25/1048] - (1)

Bl. Procopius of Sázava, Bohemia () [980-7/4/1053] - (1) ; (2) ; (3)

St. Robert of Chaise-Dieu () [1000-4/17/1067] - (1)

St. Romuald of Italy (monk founder of the Camaldolese Benedictines) [951-6/19/1027] - (1) incorrupt body found in 1466, 439 years after his repose; (2) 1005 prophecy that he would die alone and unaided in Val-Di-Castro fulfilled 22 years later when he died there alone in his cell; (3) appeared, among other white-clothed monks, ascending into Heaven in a vision of Maldolus, who thereupon gave him some land to establish monasteries and hermitages; (4) many miracles at his tomb
St. Stanislaus Szczepanowsky of Cracow () [7/26/1030-5/8/1079] - (1)

St. Ulric of Zell () [1020-1093] - (1)

St. Waltheof of Northampton () [†8/31/1076] - (1)

St. Walstan of Bawburgh (blue-blooded itinerant farmer & mendicant pilgrim) [†5/30/1016] - (1) "when Walstan died while working in the fields, the calves carried his body to Bawburgh church, passing through solid walls to leave his body at the altar"

Bl. William of Hirsau () [1026-7/4/1091] - (1) incorrupt body; (2)

12th Century
St. Adelelmus of France (Benedictine abbot) [†1100] - (1)

St. Adjutor of Vernon (Benedictine monk & hermit) [†4/30/1131] - (1)

St. Aimo of Savigny (Benedictine hieromonk) [†4/30/1173] - (1) ecstasies

St. Albert of Montecorvino (bishop) [†4/5/1127] - (1)

Bl. Albert of Siena () [†1/7/1181] - (1)

St. Aleth of Dijon (married laywoman) [†4/4/1105] - (1)

St. Atto of Pistoia (Vallombrosan abbot) [1070-5/22/1155] - (1) incorrupt body

St. Bartholomew of Farne (Tostig: Benedictine hieromonk) [†1193] - (1) ; (2)

St. Bartholomew of Simeri () [1050-8/19/1130] - (1)

St. Benedict of Cagliari () [2/17/1120] - (1)

St. Benedict the Bridge Builder of Hermillon (shepherd) [1163-4/14/1184] - (1)
Bl. Benedict Ricásoli of Coltiboni () [1040/1/20/1107] - (1) incorrupt body; (2)

St. Benno of Meissen (bishop) [1010-6/16/1106] - (1) many posthumous miracles when his relics were transferred in 1285

St. Bernard of Clairvaux (Church Doctor) [1090-8/21/1153] – (1) resurrecting the dead

Bl. Bernard the Penitent of France () [†4/19/1182] - (1)

St. Bernard of Tiron () [1046-4/14/1117] - (1)

St. Bernard of Valdeiglesias (Benedictine Cistercian monk) [†8/19/1155] - (1)

Bl. Bertha de'Alberti of Cavriglia of Italy (Vallombrosan abbess) [1106-3/24/1163] - (1) foresaw her death

St. Berthold of Mount Carmel () [†3/29/1195] - (1)

St. Bertrand of Comminges (reformer bishop) [1050-10/16/1123] - (1)

St. Burchard of Beinwil () [1100-5/18/1192] - (1)

St. Canute Lavard of Denmark (martyr) [1096-1/7/1131] - (1)

St. Christina of Markgate (nun) [1097-12/5/1160] - (1) ecstasies; (2) visions

Bl. Conrad of Seldenbüren (Benedictine lay-brother & martyr ) [1070-5/2/1126] - (1)

St. Dominic of the Causeway () [†5/12/1109] - (1)

St. Drogo of France (Benedictine hermit) [1105-4/16/1186] - (1) bilocation: attended mass and worked fields simultaneously
Bl. Eberhard of Obermarchtal () [†4/17/1178] - (1)

St. Elizabeth Schonau (abbess) [1126-6/18/1164] - (1)

St. Emilina of Longeville (discalced Cistercian nun) [1115-10/27/1178] - (1) "sometimes prophesied about visitors before they arrived;" (2) other prophecies; (3) other mystical gifts

King St. Eric IX of Sweden () [1120-5/18/1160] - (1)

Bl. Evermod of Ratzeburg (bishop) [1100-2/17/1178] - (1) freed prisoners of Count Henry of Ratzeburg when he broke their chains by sprinking Easter holy water on them

Bl. Folcold of Bern () [†4/12/1149] - (1)

St. Frederick of Marie Gaarde () [1100-3/3/1175] - (1) Bl. Sibrand of Marie Gaarde mentions 14 posthumous healings before 1230

St. Galgano of Italy (Galgano Guidotti: Monte Siepe hermit) [1148-12/5/1181] - (1) converted after vision of St. Michael the Archangel; (2) after saying that giving up his former lifestyle would be as easy as cutting rocks with a sword, he thrust his sword into a stone up to the hilt despite expecting sword to snap

St. Gerlac of Valkenberg (tree-dwelling hermit) [1100-1/5/1172] - (1) vision of St. Gervase the Martyr of Milan on 1/5/1170

Bl. Gerold of Bellelay () [†3/29/1180] - (1)

Bl. Gilbert of Neufontaines (abbot founder of Praemonstratensian monastery there) [1076-6/6/1152] - (1)

Bl. Godfrey of Cappenberg () [1097-1/13/1127] - (1)

Bl. Godfrey the German () [†5/24/1156] - (1)

St. Godric of Finchale () [1069-5/21/1170] - (1)

St. Grimo of Ursberg () [1100-3/2/1173] - (1)

Bl. Gunthild of Biblisheim () [†2/21/1131] - (1)

St. Helen of Sköfde (martyred blue-blooded widow) [†7/31/1160] - (1) healings of sick at her tomb; (2) healings of cripples at her tomb; (3) stone coffin floated to Tiisvilde a spring gushed forth where it landed

St. Henry of Coquet () [†1/16/1127] - (1)

St. Henry of Uppsalla (bishop-martyr) [†1/19/1156] - (1)

St. Herluka of Bernried () [1060-3/18/1127] - (1)

Bl. Hildegard of Bingen () [1098-9/17/1179] - (1) visions of luminous objects starting at age three; (2) vision of God Who ordered her to record everything she saw and heard in the visions: "And it came to pass...when I was 42 years and 7 months old, that the heavens were opened and a blinding light of exceptional brilliance flowed through my entire brain. And so it kindled my whole heart and breast like a flame, not burning but warming...and suddenly I understood of the meaning of expositions of the books..."; (3) punished with sickness for hesitating to record these visions from God: "But although I heard and saw these things, because of doubt and low opinion of myself and because of diverse sayings of men, I refused for a long time a call to write, not out of stubbornness but out of humility, until weighed down by a scourge of God, I fell onto a bed of sickness."

Bl. Hildegun of Schönau () [†4/20/1188] - (1) ; (2)

Bl. Hugh of Bonnevaux () [1120-4/1/1194] - (1)

St. Hugh of Cluny [1024-4/28/1109] - (1)

St. Hugh of Grenoble () [1052-4/1/1132] - (1)

St. Ida of Boulogne () [†4/13/1113] - (1)

Bl. Ida of Park () [†5/26/mid-12th c.] - (1)

Bl. Idesbald of Dunes () [1090-4/18/1167] - (1) incorrupt body

St. Isidore the Laborer (farmer) [1070-5/15/1130] - (1) posthumously appeared to King Alfonso VIII of Castile and showed him hidden path by which he surprised Moors and won in Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa on 7/16/1212; (2) Philip III of Spain cured of deadly disease when he touched Isidore's holy relics; (3) ploughed the field with angels; (4) resurrected his master's daughter; (5) made a freshwater fountain burst from the arid land to quench his master's thirst; (6) his son fell into a deep well and he prayed with his wife Maria Torribia and the well water miraculously rose bringing his son to the ground alive and well; (7) incorrupt body
Bl. Joan of Aza (noble laywoman and mother of St. Dominic de Guzman) [d. 8/8/1190] - (1)

St. John of Matera/Pulsano () [†1139] - (1)

St. John of Meda () [†9/26/1159] - (1)

Bl. John of Salerno (Dominican preacher & friary founder) [1190-8/9/1272] - (1)

St. John Theristus () [†2/24/1129] - (1)

St. John I of Valence () [1070-4/21/1146] - (1)

St. Jón Ögmundsson of Hólar () [1052-4/23/1121] - (1)

St. Leopold III the Valiant of Austria (Margrave of Austria) [1073-11/15/1136] - (1)
St. Magnus Orknøyjarl () [1076-4/16/1115] - (1)

St. Malachy O'More of Ireland (Maelmhaedhoc O'Morgair: ) [1094-11/2/1148] - (1) resurrecting the dead; (2) prophecy of 112 popes after his death; (3) ; (4)
St. Margaret of England () [†2/3/1192] - (1)

Bl. Markward of Wilten () [1100-5/6/1142] - (1)

St. Norbert () [1080-6/6/1134] - (1) ; (2)

Bl. Odo of Novara () [1100-1/14/1198] - (1)

Bl. Ollegarius of Barcelona (incorrupt Archbishop of Tarragona) [1060-3/6/1137] - (1)

St. Otto of Bamberg () [1062-6/30/1139] - (1)

St. Peter of Juilly (Benedictine monk & preacher) [†6/23/1136] - (1)

Bl. Peter the Venerable of Montboissier () [1092-12/25/1156] - (1)

St. Peter of Tarantaise () [1102-5/8/1174] - (1)

Bl. Radobo of Park () [†4/17/1150] - (1)

St. Ranieri of Pisa () [1117-6/17/1161] - (1)

St. Raymond Gayrard of Toulouse (archdeacon & widower) [†7/3/1118] - (1)

Bl. Robert of Arbrissel (monk & preacher) [1047-2/24/1116] - (1) vision of Christ Crucified, the Blessed Virgin Mary, and St. John the Theologian

St. Robert of Newminster () [1100-6/7/1157] - (1)

St. Rosalia of Palermo (blue-blooded virgin anchoress) [1130-9/4/1160] - (1)

Bl. Stilla of Abenberg () [†1132] - (1)

St. Theotonius of Coimbra () [1086-2/18/1166] - (1)

St. Thomas Becket of Canterbury (Archbishop and martyr of Canterbury) [12/21/1118-12/29/1170] - (1)
St. Thorlac of Iceland (bishop of Skalholt) [1133-12/23/1193] - (1) incorrupt body

St. Ubaldo Baldassini of Gubbio (bishop) [1085-5/16/1160] – (1) incorrupt body

St. Waltheof of Melrose () [1095-8/3/1159] - (1)

Bl. Walto of Wessobrünn () [1090-1156] - (1)

St. William Firmatus () [†1103] - (1)

St. William the Great of Maleval (hermit) [d. 2/10/1157] - (1) prophecies; (2) other miracles; (3) foresaw his repose
St. William Tempier of Poitiers (bishop) [†1197] - (1)

St. William of Vercelli () [1085-6/25/1142] - (1)

St. William of Windberg () [1000-4/20/1145] - (1)

St. William of York (two-time Archbishop of York) [d. 1154] - (1)
Bl. Wirno of Form Back (Benedictine abbot) [†3/10/1127] - (1)

St. Wulfric of Haselbury () [†1154] - (1)

13th Century
St. Absalon of Denmark () [1128-3/21/1201] - (1)

Bl. Adam of Saxony (Benedictine Cisterian priest & sacristan) [†1210] - (1) visions of Theotókos; (2) other miracles

Bl. Agnellus of Pisa (Franciscan deacon) [1195-5/7/1236] - (1) body incorrupt until King Henry VIII dissolved Oxford house

St. Agnes of Prague (princess, foundress of the Confraternity of the Crusaders of the Red Star, & abbess) [1205-3/6/1282] - (1) ecstasies; (2) healings; (3) prophecy: e.g., prophesied victory of her brother King Wenceslaus I over the Duke of Austria

Bl. Albert of Bergamo (Dominican tertiary) [†1279] - (1)

St. Albert the Great (Doctor of the Church) [1206-11/15/1280] - (1) incorrupt body; (2) ; (3) prophesied that St. Thomas Aquinas's "bellowing in doctrine will one day resound throughout the world"
St. Albert of Jerusalem (Albert Avogadro: murdered Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem) [1149-9/14/1215] - (1)

St. Aldebrandus of Fossombrone (bishop) [1119-4/30/1219] - (1)

St. Alderic of Füssenich () [1180-2/6/1200] - (1)

St. Aleydis of Schaerbeek () [†6/11/1250] - (1)

Bl. Alphais of Cudot () [1155-11/3/1211] - (1) ; (2)

St. Amata of Assisi (Poor Clare nun) [†1250] - (1) miraculously healed by her aunt, St. Clare of Assisi

Bl. Ambrose Sansedoni of Siena (Dominican missionary) [1220-3/2/1287] - (1) levitation during preaching; (2) ecstasies; (3) visions; (4) circled in uncreated light with bright birds flying around; (5) an unknown pilgrim prophesied of him to his nurse in church, "Do not cover that child’s face. He will one day be the glory of this city;" (6) a few days after this the extremely deformed child stretched out his twisted limbs, said, "Jesus," and his deformities were all gone
Bl. Andrew Caccioli of Spello () [11/30/1194-6/3/1254] - (1)

St. Angelus of Jerusalem and Sicily (Carmelite eremitic missionary & martyr) [1145-5/5/1220] - (1)

Bl. Angelus de Scarpetti (Augustinian friar & missionary) [†1306] - (1) resurrected an innocent executed man; (2) other miracles

Bl. Anthony Manzi the Pilgrim of Padua (hermit) [1237-2/1/1267] - (1) miracles at his tomb

St. Anthony the Wonderworker of Padua (Franciscan priest and Church Doctor) [8/15/1195-6/13/1231] - (1) resurrecting the dead; (2) children in the streets cried and all the church bells of the churches were rung by angels who came to earth to honor him
St. Bartholomew degli Amidei (one of the Seven Founders of the Servants of Mary) [†2/17/1260s] - (1)

Bl. Beatrix I d'Este () [1200-5/10/1226] - (1)

Bl. Beatrix II d'Este the Myrrh-Gusher () [1230-1/18/1262] - (1)

Bl. Beatrix of Valfleury (Cisterian foundress & first prioress of convent of Our Lady of Nazareth near Lier) [†7/29/1269] - (1) vision of Jesus; (2) angels took her holy body to Lier, Belgium

St. Béla IV of Ungarn () [1206-5/3/1270] - (1)

St. Benedict dell'Antella (one of the Seven Founders of the Servants of Mary) [†8/20/1268] - (1)

Bl. Benevenuto of Ricali () [†5/5/1289] - (1)

St. Benevenuto Scotivoli of Osimo (Franciscan bishop of Osimo) [†3/22/1282] - (1) miracles and manifestations of grace at his funeral

Bl. Bentivolius de Bonis () [1188-12/25/1232] - (1)

St. Benvenuta Bojani of Cividale dei Friuli () [5/4/1254-10/30/1292] - (1) ; (2)

Bl. Benvenuto of Gubbio () [†6/27/1232] - (1)

St. Bernard II of Lippe () [1140-1/23/1224] - (1)

Bl. Bernard of Portugal () [†5/8/1265] - (1)

Bl. Bertrand of Garrigue (Dominican provincial of Provence, priest, & "the Second Dominic") [1195-9/6/1230] - (1)

St. Bona of Pisa (virgin) [1155-5/29/1207] - (1)

St. Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (Franciscan General, Cardinal, & Seraphic Doctor of the Church) [1221-7/15/1274] - (1)
St. Boniface of Lausanne () [1180-2/19/1260] - (1)

St. Buonfiglio Monaldi (oldest of the Seven Founders of the Servants of Mary) [†1/1/1261] - (1)

Pope St. Celestine V of Rome (Pietro di Murrone) [1215-5/19/1296] - (1)

Bl. Ceslas Odrowaz of Poland () [1180-7/16/1242] - (1)

St. Christina the Astonishing of Belgium (nun) [1150-7/24/1224] - (1) died at age 21 and suddenly recovered during her Funeral Mass; (2) then levitated to roof of the church; (3) visited Heaven; (4) visited Purgatory; (5) visited Hell; (6) led souls of recently departed to Purgatory; (7) led souls in Purgatory to Heaven; (8) could smell sin on other people; (9) could handle fire and roll in it without harm; (10) stood in freezing water in the winter for hours unharmed; (11) never injured when repeatedly dragged underwater by a wheel mill

St. Clare of Assisi (Chiara Offreduccio: disciple of Francis of Assisi and abbess who founded Order of Poor Ladies) [7/16/1194-8/11/1253] – (1) saw and heard Mass she was unable to attend on the wall of her room; (2) turned away attackers at her convent gates by lifting the Eucharist over the wall
Bl. Conrad de'Miliani of Ascoli () [1234-4/19/1289] - (1)

St. Cyril of Constantinople () [†1224] - (1)

Bl. Dodo of Asch (Premonstratensian hermit) [†3/30/1231] - (1) stigmata; (2)

St. Dominic (Domingo de Guzmán Garcés: Founder of the Dominicians) [1170-8/6/1221] - (1) resurrecting the dead; (2) ; (3) ; (4)

Bl. Egidius of Portugal () [1190-5/14/1265] - (1)

St. Elisabeth of Hungary (Árpád-házi Szent Erzsébet: Princess of Hungary) [7/7/1207-11/17/1231] - (1) resurrecting the dead; (2) food she was bringing to the poor changed to roses when Prince Louis looked under her mantle

St. Engelbert of Cologne (martyred blue-blooded archbishop) [1185-2/24/1226] - (1)

Bl. Evangelist of Verona () [†3/20/1250] - (1)

St. Felix of Valois (blue-blooded Cistercian hieromonk & co-founder of the Order of the Holy Trinity for the Redemption of Captives) [4/1127-11/4/1212] - (1)

King St. Ferdinand III of León and Castile (Confessor) [7/30,8/5/1199-5/30/1252] – (1) incorrupt body; (2)

St. Fina of Tuscany () [1238-3/12/1253] – (1) Pope St. Gregory I the Great of Rome appeared to her and prophesied the date of her death; (2)

St. Franca Vitalta of Piacenza () [1175-4/25/1218] - (1)

St. Francis of Assisi (founder of the Order of Friars Minor) [1181,1182-10/3/1226] - (1) stigmata; (2) ; (3)
Bl. Gandulf Sacchi of Binasco (Franciscan preacher & hermit) [1200-4/3/1260] - (1)

Bl. Gerard of Lunel () [1275-5/6/1298] - (1)

St. Gerius of Monte Santo () [†5/25/1270] - (1)

Bl. Gerlac of Milevsko () [1165-5/7/1228] - (1)

Bl. Gertrude of Altenberg (blue-blooded Praemonstratensian abbess) [1227-8/13/1297] - (1)

St. Gherardino Sostegni (one of the Seven Founders of the Servants of Mary) [†1260s] - (1)

St. Gilbert of Caithness () [†4/1/1245] - (1)

St. Giles of Assisi () [†4/23/1262] - (1)

Bl. Gonzalo de Amarante (Dominican hieromonk) [1187-1/10/1259] - (1)

St. Gudmund Arason of Hólar () [1161-3/16/1237] - (1)

Bl. Guy Vignotelli of Cortona (Franciscan hieromonk) [1185-6/16/1245] - (1) famed for his miracles

St. Hedwig of Silesia (Duchess of Silesia) [1174-10/16/1243] - (1) healings of spiritual ills; (2) healings of bodily ills

Bl. Helen Enselmeni of Padua (Poor Clare nun) [1207-11/4/1242] - (1) inedia: lived only on the Eucharist for months

Bl. Helen of Hungary (Dominican prioress) [†11/9/1270] - (1) ; (2) ; (3) ; (4) ; (5)

Bl. Herman Joseph of Cologne () [1150-4/7/1241] - (1)

St. Hildebrand of Fossombrone (bishop) [1119-4/30/1219] - (1) while sick on a fasting day he was brought a cooked partridge, and when he prayed over the bird it flew away

St. Honorius of Buzancais () [†1/9/1250] - (1)

Pope Honorius III of Rome (Cencio Savelli: ) [1148-3/18/1227] - (1)

St. Hugh of Lincoln () [1135-11/16/1200] - (1)

St. Hugh dei Lippi-Uguccioni () [†5/3/1282] - (1)

St. Hyacinth of Krakow (Dominican Apostle to Poland) [1185-8/15/1257] - (1) when monastery was attacked he lifted extremely heavy cross and statue of Mary with miraculous burst of strength

St. Ingrid of Sweeden (first Dominican nun in Sweden who founded first Dominican cloister there) [†9/2/1282] - (1)

St. Isabel of France () [3/1225-2/23/1270] - (1)

Bl. Isnard of Chiampo (Dominican friar) [†3/22/1244] - (1)

Bl. Ivetta of Huy () [1158-1/13/1228] - (1) miraculously received Holy Communion; (2) clairvoyant: could read people's hearts; (3) visions of distant events

Bl. Jacob of Vicogne () [†5/15/1279] - (1)

St. Jacoba of Assisi () [†2/8/1273] - (1)

Bl. Joachim of Fiore [1130-3/30/1202] - (1) ; (2)

Bl. John Buoni of Mantova () [1168-10/23/1249] - (1)

Bl. John Buralli of Parma () [1208-3/20/1289] - (1)

St. John of Matha () [6/23/1160-12/12/1223] - (1)

St. John de Montmirail (blue-blooded Cistercian monk) [1165-9/29/1217] - (1) ; (2)

Bl. John of Penna (Franciscan hieromonk) [1193-4/3/1271] - (1)

Bl. John Garbella of Vercelli (Dominican Master-General & papal legate) [1205-11/30/1283] - (1) during translation of relics of St. Dominic de Guzman in 1267 St. Dominic turned his head towards him and when he, out of embarrassment, moved to a different part of the church, St. Dominic again turned his head toward him

St. John Buonagiunta Monetti (one of the Seven Founders of the Servants of Mary) [†2/17/1256] - (1)

Bl. Jordan of Saxony (Dominican Master-General) [1190-2/13/1237] - (1)

St. Judith of Prussia () [†5/5/1260] - (1)

Bl. Juliana of Cornillon [1192-4/5/1258] - (1)

St. Leonard of Reresby (Crusader) [†11/6/13th c.] - (1) miraculously freed from Saracen captors

St. Luchesius of Poggibonsi, Umbria () [†4/28/1260] - (1)

St. Ludolf of Ratzeburg () [†3/29/1250] - (1)

St. Luke Belludi of Padua () [1200-2/17/1285] - (1)

St. Lutgard of Belgium (Cisterian nun) [1182-6/16/1246] - (1) ; (2) ; (3) ; (4) ; (5)

Bl. Mafalda of Portugal () [1184-5/2/1257] - (1) incorrupt, pliable body; (2)

St. Margaret of Cortona (Franciscan tertiary nun) [1247-2/22/1297] - (1)

St. Margaret of Hungary () [1242-1/18/1271] - (1)

St. Margaret of Louvain () [1207-9/2/1225] - (1)

Bl. Mary de Cerevellon (co-foundress of a female branch of Mercedarians) [1230-9/19/1290] - (1)

Bl. Mary of Oignies (hermitess) [1167-6/23/1213] - (1) ecstasies; (2) prophecies; (3) vision of St. John the Evangelist; (4) visions of her guardian angel; (5) clairvoyance; (6) stigmata; (7) face transfigured repeatedly at Communion?; (8) often saw at the Elevation of the Host baby Jesus syrrounded by angels; (9) saw Jesus in the form of a lamb; (10) saw Jesus in the form of a dove; (11) saw Jesus sitting on lap of Theotókos; (12) at Candlemas saw Jesus sitting in arms of St. Simeon; (13) at Passiontide saw Jesus on the Cross; (14) when priest received communion, Bl. Mary saw Jesus descend into his soul and fill it with uncreated light; (15) odor of sanctity while praying; (16) frequently prophesied foundation of Order of Preachers; (17) foresaw that Holy Spirit would enlighten Church by Order of Preachers; (18) Fr. Casset: Bl. Mary saw Theotókos consoling feverish devout widow of Willambronx and cooling her with a fan; (19) sheltered from rain by Theotókos?

St. Mechtilde of Helfta () [1241-11/19/1298] - (1)

Bl. Nicholas Paglia () [1197-2/14/1256] - (1)

St. Obitius of Brescia (Benedictine monk) [1150-2/4/1204] - (1) converted to life of strict penance after he had a vision of Hell while nearly drowning

St. Orlando of Vallombrosa (lay-brother) [†5/20/1242] - (1) many exorcisms

St. Peregrinus of Verona () [†3/20/1250] - (1)

St. Peter Gonzales () [1190-4/15/1246] - (1) when he ran out of food for those he cared for he would pray by river and fish would jump out onto the banks

St. Peter Nolasco () [1182-1/28/1256] - (1)

St. Peter Verona (Dominican martyr to Catharists and a Second Paul) [1205-4/6/1252] - (1) ; (2) ; (3)

St. Philip Benizi () [8/15/1233-8/22/1285] - (1) gave his cloak to leper on road and leper was healed; (2) many other healings

St. Raymond Nonnatus of Spain (Mercedarian hieromonk & cardinal) [1204-8/31/1240] - (1)

St. Raymond of Penafort () [1175-1/6/1275] - (1)
St. Raynerius Inclusus (hermit) [†4/11/1233] - (1) ; (2)

Bl. Reginald of Orleans () [1180-2/1/1220] - (1) incorrupt body

St. Richard of Andria () [†6/9/1200] - (1)

St. Richard of Chichester () [1197-4/3/1253] - (1)

St. Rose of Viterbo (Franciscan tertiary) [1234-3/6/1252] - (1)

Bl. Sadoc () [†1260] - (1)

St. Siardus of Mariengaarden () [1150-11/13/1230] - (1)

Bl. Simon of Aulne (Cistercian lay brother) [†11/6/1215] - (1) visions; (2) ecstasies during prayer

St. Simon Stock () [1165-5/16/1265] - (1) ; (2)

St. Sperandea of Cingoli (Benedictine abbess) [†9/11/1276] - (1)

St. Sylvester of Assisi () [†3/6/1240] - (1)

St. Thomas Aquinas (Angelic Church Doctor, Dominican priest, and prince of theologians) [1225-3/7/1274] – (1) hermetic prophet told his mother Theodora that he would be extremely holy and learned and would enter the Order of Friars Preachers; (2) after he drove a temptress from his room two angels gave him a white girdle of perpetual virginity which freed him from concupiscence for the rest of his life ; (3) levitation; (4) frequent ecstasy; (5) God, speaking from the crucifix on an altar told him "Thou hast written well of me, Thomas; what reward wilt thou have?" and Thomas answered, "None other than Thyself, Lord;" (6) during an ecstasy on 12/6/1273 he received revelations that made the Summa Theologica look virtually worthless; (7) Theotókos appeared and told him that God accepted his life and writings; (8) Sts. Peter and Paul appeared and helped him decipher a passage in Isaiah; (9) St. Dominic de Guzmán appeared to him to encourage him and recommend the text for his opening discourse when St. Thomas, out of humility, considered himself not worthy of the doctorate

St. Thomas Hales of Dover (Benedictine monk-martyr) [†8/2/1295] - (1)

St. Thorfinn of Norway () [†1/8/1285] - (1)

Bl. Torello of Poppi (Vallumbrosan hermit) [1201-3/16/1281] - (1) ; (2) ; (3)

St. Veridiana of Florence () [1182-1242] - (1)

Bl. Walter of Quesnoy (Premonstratensian abbot of Vicogne) [†9/26/1229] - (1)

St. William of Bourges () [†1/10/1209] - (1)

St. William of Eskilsoe () [1125-4/6/1203] - (1)

St. William of Rochester () [†1201] - (1)

St. William of Saint-Brieuc (bishop) [1178-7/29/1234] - (1)

St. Zdislava Berka () [1220-1252] - (1)

St. Zita of Lucca (virgin housemaid) [1218-4/27/1272] - (1) incorrupt body; (2) ; (3) ; (4)

Sunday, July 27, 2008

Trine Immersion Is Not Necessary for Baptism

Trine immersion is necessary for valid baptism

Now here is the wicked statement by Nicodemos the Hagiorite (1749-7/14/1809), whom the Eastern Orthodox consider a saint:
The Latins are unbaptized because they do not keep the three immersions while baptizing...let them learn that a baptism is not complete by petitioning the Holy Trinity only, but what is also needed is the likeness (typos) of the death, the burial and the resurrection of the Lord...for us to be participants in the likeness of the death of Christ and His three-day burial; it is imperative that the three immersions take place otherwise this is impossible...{1}
I prefer baptism by trine immersion but immersion is not necessary for valid baptism and Nikodemos wrongly denied the validity of the Blessed Sacraments which he and his separated peers retained from the Catholic Church.

That immersion is not necessary is clear from Scripture:
"And I will pour upon you clean water, and you shall be cleansed from all your filthiness, and I will cleanse you from all your idols. And I will give you a new heart, and put a new spirit within you: and I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and will give you a heart of flesh" [Ez 36:25-26].
"Let us draw near with a true heart in fullness of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with clean water" [Heb 10:22].
St. Paul the Apostle himself was baptized while standing up [Acts 9:18; 22:16].

Further, says St. Thomas Aquinas in Summa Theologica 3:66:7, there are urgent cases which can necessitate sprinkling or pouring: (1) a multitude of people;{2} (2) small water supply; (3) feebleness of the minister; and (4) feebleness of the candidate (e.g. a smoker with a hole in his neck cannot be immersed safely). Washing is essential to baptism but the manner of washing is accidental to baptism, pace Nikodemos. Though trine immersion most clearly signifies the three-day burial of our Lord, all baptism signifies His burial because it involves the placement of some part of the body under the cleansing water. Moreover stands the authority of Pope St. Gregory I the Great of Rome, Church Doctor, who was not contradicted on this point in his time, "It cannot be in any way reprehensible to baptize an infant with either a trine or a single immersion: since the Trinity can be represented in the three immersions, and the unity of the Godhead in one immersion."{3}

Notes and References
{1} Nicodemus the Hagiorite: The Rudder (Book of the Sacred Canons of the Church), pp. 72-74: footnote from Nicodemus's interpretation of Canon XLVI of the 85 Canons of the Holy Apostles.
{2} The Apostles baptized 3,000 people at St. Peter's first sermon [Acts 2:41].
{3} Pope St. Gregory I the Great of Rome, Epistle to Bishop Leander, cited in the Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Church Doctor, 3:66:8 @

More divinely inspired verses on sprinkling & pouring coming soon!


Thursday, July 24, 2008

Mark of Ephesus

1. The Eastern Orthodox venerate Metropolitan Mark Eugenikos (Μάρκος Ευγενικός = Mark the Courteous) of Ephesus [1392-6/3/1444] as one of the Three Pillars of Orthodoxy, together with Patriarch Photius (Φώτιος) the Great of Constantinople [820-2/6/891] and Archbishop Gregory Palamasof Thessalonica [1296-11/14/1359]. Though the Eastern Orthodox cult of Mark of Ephesus had been celebrated from the time of his death, he was formally canonized in 1734 by Patriarch Seraphim I of Constantinople. The feast day of Mark of Ephesus is January 19.2. Mark Eugenikos of Ephesus is not recognized as a saint by the Catholic Church, according to the experts Fr. Aidan Nichols and Fr. Serge Keleher. At the Ecumenical Council of Ferrara-Florence, he was the only bishop to refuse to sign the Cedula proclaiming the union of the Eastern Orthodox Church with the Catholic Church.

3. Mark is commendable for his austere lifestyle, his zeal, and his learning. However, it is not appropriate to venerate him as a saint, just as it is not appropriate to venerate Nestorios, Dioscoros, and Tertullian. This is because Mark was shown the truth and he rejected it even on his deathbed when he was uttering his last address. This is the model of what not to do.
4. At the Ecumenical Council of Florence, everyone agreed that the teachings of the Eastern and Western Fathers are harmonious even where they might appear to contradict each other; the Fathers were guided by the same Holy Spirit, the Spirit of Truth. Mark resisted that Spirit of Truth. The Latin Fathers of the Council proved that the Western Fathers unanimously taught Filioque, and Mark avoided the unavoidable conclusion that Filioque is orthodox. In order to maintain his untenable position, he was forced to say that the passages of the Western Church Fathers teaching Filioque were corrupt and interpolated, and the Latin Council Fathers demonstrated the absurdity of Mark's hypothesis.

5. The Metropolitan Mark persisted in heresy and schism until his death, and he put voluminous amounts of energy into convincing uneducated laity and monks in Constantinople to disobey the decrees of an Ecumenical Council and to adopt his Patristically impossible position. Though Mark of Ephesus held some false eschatological doctrines, the definitive obstacle to his veneration is his repudiation of Filioque after having heard correct translations of the genuine proclamations of the Fathers of the Western Tradition, which, like the Eastern Tradition, is indispensable. Those people we know to be saints finish their lives with an act of charity, but on his deathbed, Mark's last words were an attack against the Church in which the Church of Christ subsists. There is nothing to mitigate, but plenty to aggravate, his grievous error.

Wednesday, July 23, 2008

Reasons to be Skeptical of the Holy Fire

Objections in defense of authenticity of Ἃγιον Φῶς (esp. to #2, 5, 6, 7) and responses coming soon; I am quite busy this summer.

1. The Franscican friars who look after many holy places have always regarded the Holy Fire as fraudulent.{1}
2. Pope Gregory IX denounced the Holy Fire as a fraud.{2}
3. Fire-bathing of the hair, face, hands, etc. is reproducible.{3}
4. The photographs are reproducible and are the result of fast camera movement and other mundane phenomena.{4}
5. Even though the Patriarch is searched for fire-starting devices, those who accompany him can still sneak matches, etc.{5}
6. White phosphorus and several other chemicals can spontaneously ignite after a while.{6}
7. The Holy Fire was not originally a flame but simply a Holy Light, and the legend has changed in other major ways over the centuries.{7}
8. The Holy Fire was denounced as a fraud by Adamantios Korais.{8}
9. The Holy Fire was denounced as a fraud by Bishop Porphyrius Uspensky.{9}
10. A bunch of knowledgeable Muslim writers exposed the method by which the Holy Fire is triggered.{10}
11. Videos betray that the fire is actually hot from the beginning.{11}
12. The nature of the alleged miracle has fundamentally changed and evolved over the centuries.{12}

Notes and References
{1} Personal correspondence with Jim Likoudis.
{4} a.


Tuesday, July 22, 2008

Priestly Celibacy

The following (quotes and refs coming soon) show that priestly celibacy is Apostolic tradition and that Canon 13 of the Council of Trullo from 692 represents a novel and false teaching in the East:

Ex 19:15; 33:28:
1 Sam 21:3-6:
Jer 16:1-2:
Mt 19:10-12,27-29: His disciples say unto Him: If the case of a man with his wife be so, it is not expedient to marry. Who said to them: All men take not this word, but they to whom it is given. For there are eunuchs, who were born so from their mothers womb: and there are eunuchs, who were made so by men: and there are eunuchs, who have made themselves eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven. He that can take, let him take it. ... Then Peter answering, said to Him: Behold we have left all things, and have followed Thee: what therefore shall we have? And Jesus said to them: Amen I say to you, that you who have followed Me, in the regeneration, when the Son of man shall sit on the seat of His majesty, you also shall sit on twelve seats judging the twelve tribes of Israel. And every one that hath left house, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands for My name's sake, shall receive an hundredfold, and shall possess life everlasting.

Lk 18:28-30: Then Peter said: Behold, we have left all things and have followed Thee. Who said to them: Amen, I say to you, there is no man that hath left home or parents or brethren or wife or children, for the Kingdom of God's sake, who shall not receive much more in this present time, and in the world to come life everlasting.

1 Cor 7:31-35:
1 Tim 5:4-13:

Fathers and Doctors
St. Clement of Alexandria in 202, Stromata 3:11:
Bishop St. Epiphanius of Salamis, Panarion Heresy 48:
St. Isidore of Pelusium:
Bishop St. Ambrose the Great of Milan (Doctor) in 393-395, Letter 63:61-62 to the Church of Vercellae:
St. Jerome the Great (Doctor) in 393, Against Jovinianus, 1:34; in 406 Against Vigiliantus, 2:

Pope St. Siricius in 385:
The Lord Jesus formally stipulated in the Gospel that he had not come to abolish the law, but to bring it to perfection; this is also why he wanted the beauty of the Church whose Bridegroom he is to shine with the splendor of chastity so that when he returns, on the Day of Judgment, he will find her without stain or wrinkle, as his Apostle taught. It is through the indissoluble law of these decisions that all of us, priests and deacons, are bound together from the day of our ordination, and [held to] put our hearts and our bodies to the service of sobriety and purity; may we be pleasing to our God in all things, in the sacrifice we offer daily.
Ecumenical Councils
Council of Nicaea (325), Can. 3: The great Synod has stringently forbidden any bishop, presbyter, deacon, or any one of the clergy whatever, to have a subintroducta dwelling with him, except only a mother, or sister, or aunt, or such persons only as are beyond all suspicion.

Local Councils
Council of Elvira (300), Can. 33: "It has seemed good absolutely to forbid the bishops, the priests and the deacons, i.e., all the clerics in the service of the ministry, to have sexual relations with their wives and procreate children; should anyone do so, let him be excluded from the honor of the clergy."
Council of Arles (314), Can. 29.
Council of Carthage (419), Can. 3,4,25,60.

Notes and References
{1} Dhouay-Rheims Version @

Sunday, July 13, 2008

Immaculate Conception of Ever-Virgin Mary Mother of God

The following men are witnesses, implicitly or explicitly, in favor of the following doctrine infallibly proclaimed and defined by Bl. Pius IX in "Ineffabilis Deus" on 12/8/1854, that Mary was:
in the first instance of her conception, by a singular privilege and grace granted by God, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the human race, was preserved exempt from all stain of original sin.
While many of these illustrious men speak of Christ alone as naturally without sin, these statements cannot exclude the Immaculate Conception as a privilege of grace in light of the other statements that they make. It is of no avail to quote Scripture against the Immaculate Conception, when it is implied by Gen 3:15 and Lk 1:28. For, as regards, e.g. Rom 3:23, we cannot exclude the Immaculate Conception because the Blessed Virgin was exempt from other general laws: She conceived and gave birth virginally and painlessly, she did not commit venial or mortal sins, her body did not undergo corruption, and she was resurrected before the General Judgment [Lambruschini 46-47]. Now we shall try to give an account of what numerous Fathers, some of whom are quoted as opponents, say with respect to the Blessed Virgin Mary and original sin. Note, as of 11/18/2009, there are still many names to be added.

1st Century
East: Patriarch St. Mark I the Apostle of Alexandria (Bryant 69) before 60 [Liturgy of St. Mark the Evangelist], "Most holy, immaculate, and blessed Mother of God, and ever Virgin Mary." Latin: "Sanctissima, immaculata, et benedicta, Deipara et semper virgine Maria."

East: Bishop St. James the Just Apostle of Jerusalem (Bryant 68-69) before 60 [Liturgy of St. James], "Most holy, most glorious, immaculate, Mother of God and ever Virgin," and Mary is "in every respect out of the range of sinful men."
Editor: The holy St. James, brother of the Lord, taught that Mary was not a sinner, i.e., she never contracted original sin or committed venial or mortal sin.

East: St. Andrew the First-Called Apostle in 62 [Acts of Andrew]: "And therefore, because the first man was created of immaculate earth, it was necessary that of an immaculate Virgin should be born a perfect man, that the Son of God should restore that eternal life which men had lost." Latin: "Et propterea, quod ex immaculatâ terrâ ereatus fuerat primus homo, necesse erat ut ex immaculatâ Virgine nasceretur perfectus homo, quo Filius Dei, qui antè condiderat hominem, vitam æternam quam perdiderant hominess, repararet."
Editor: The earth from which Adam was created had always been immaculate, and so the Blessed Virgin was always immaculate, or else we would make the glorious and all-praised St. Andrew guilty of a false analogy.

4th Century
West: Bishop St. Ambrose the Great of Milan (Doctor) [On Psalm 118 in PL 15:1521B]: St. Mary is "a virgin freed by grace from every stain of sin." Latin: "Virgo per gratiam ab omni integra labe peccati."

West: Hieromonk St. Jerome the Great of Strido (Doctor) (Lambruschini 71-72) [Commentary on Psalm 77 in PL 26:1049BC]:
"Behold the Lord cometh into Egypt in a light cloud." The light cloud we must understand, either as properly signifying the body of the Savior, as being light and burdened with no sin: or we may certainly take the light cloud as signifying Holy Mary … Behold the Lord cometh into the Egypt of this world on a light cloud, which is the Virgin. "And He conducted them with a cloud by day." He said beautifully "by day," for that cloud was never in darkness, but always in light.
"Ecce Dominus venit Ægyptum in nebulâ levi." Nubem levem, aut propriè Salvatoris corpus debemus accipere, quia leve fuit, et nullo peccato prægravatm: aut certè nubem levem debemus sanctam Mariam accipere, nullo semine humano prægravatam. Ecce Dominus venit in Ægyptum sæculi istius super nubem levem, Virginem. "Et deduxit eos in nube diei." Pulchrè dixit diei; nubes eniem illa non fuit in tenebris, sed semper in luce.
Editor: Since Mary is the light cloud that was always in light and never in darkness, she did not contract original sin.

5th Century
West: Bishop St. Augustine the Great of Hippo (Doctor of Grace) [Against Julian in PL 45:1418]: "We do not transfer Mary to the devil by the condition of her birth, for this reason, that that condition is dissolved by the grace of her new birth." Latin: "Non transcribimus diabolo Mariam conditione nascendi; sed ideo, quia ipsa conditio solvitur gratia renascendi."

East: Bishop St. Theodotus of Ancyra [Homily 6:11 on the Holy Mother of God in PG 77:1427A],
In the place of Eve, an instrument of death, is chosen a Virgin, most pleasing to God and full of His grace, as an instrument of life. A Virgin included in woman's sex, but without a share in woman's fault. A Virgin innocent; immaculate; free from all guilt; spotless; undefiled; holy in spirit and body; a lily among thorns.
East: Archbishop St. Proclus of Constantinople before 466 [Homily 1:3 in PG 65:683B]: "As He formed her without any stain of her own, so He proceeded from her contracting no stain."
Editor: Mary was formed without stain, meaning that she had no stain at the moment of her formation, meaning that she never contracted original sin.

West: Archbishop St. Peter Chrysologus of Ravenna (Doctor) in 449 [Sermon 140 in PL 52:576A]: "The angel took not the Virgin from Joseph, but gave her to Christ, to Whom she was pledged from Joseph, but gave her to Christ, to Whom she was pledged in the womb, when she was made."
Editor: Mary could not be pledged to Christ at the instant she was made if at that instant she was infected with original sin.

West: Bishop St. Maximus of Turin (Lambruschini 78) [Homily 5 Before the Nativity of the Lord in PL 57:235D]: "Mary was a fit dwelling for Christ, not because of the disposition of her body, but on account of original grace." Latin: "Idoneum plane Maria Christo habitaculum non pro habitu corporis, sed pro gratiâ originali."
Editor: Mary was originally in a state of grace, and so she did not contract original sin.

6th Century
West: Bishop St. Fulgentius of Ruspe (Lambruschini 161-162) [Sermon 36 De laudibus Mariae ex partu Salvatoris in PL 65:899C]: "By these words [Hail, full of grace], the angel shows that she [Mary] was altogether excluded from the wrath of the first sentence, and restored to the full grace of blessing." Latin: "Cum dixit, gratia plena, ostendit ex integro, iram exclusam primæ sententiæ, et plenam benedictionis gratiam restitutam."

East: Patriarch St. Anastasius I the Sinaite of Antioch before 598 [Oration 3:6 on the Incarnation in PG 89:1338].

7th Century
East: Patriarch St. Sophronius of Jerusalem (O'Connor 93) [Oration 2:25 on the Annunciation to the Holy Mother of God in PG 87:3248A]: "Many saints appeared before thee, but none was as filled with grace as thou… No one has been purified in advance as thou hast been… Thou dost surpass all that is most excellent in man, as well as all the gifts which have been bestowed by God upon all others."

8th Century
East: St. Andrew of Crete (O'Connor 94) [Homily 1 on the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary in PG 97:809D-812]:
Today, Adam presents Mary to God as the first fruits of our nature… Today, humanity recovers the gift it had received when first formed by divine hands, and returns immaculate to its original nobility. The shame of sin had cast a shadow upon the splendor and charm of human nature; but when the Mother of Him Who is Beauty itself is born, this nature recovers in her person its ancient privileges, and is fashioned according to a perfect model, truly worthy of God. And this fashioning is a perfect restoration; this restoration is a divinization, and this divinization is an assimilation to the primitive state… In a word, the reformation of our nature begins today; the world, which had grown old, undergoes a transformation which is wholly divine, and receives the first fruits of its second creation.
East: Patriarch St. Germanus I of Constantinople (O'Connor 95) says [Homily 1 on the Presentation of the Holy Mother of God in PG 98:300D]: "Accept her whom you have chosen, predestined, and sanctified, … her whom you have chosen as a lily among the thorns of our unworthiness."

East: Hieromonk St. John of Damascus (Doctor) (O'Connor 97) [Homily on the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary in PG 96:664AB]:
Nature was defeated by grace and stopped, trembling, not daring to take precedence over it [grace]. Since the Virgin Mother of God was to be born of Anne, nature did not dare to precede the product of grace; but remained sterile until grace had produced its fruit. O happy loins of Joachim, which had produced a germ which is all immaculate. O wondrous womb of Anne in which an all-holy child slowly grew and took shape!
Editor: Mary was spotless as a zygote and was infused with grace before she could receive the wounds of nature; meaning she had no original sin at the moment of her conception.

9th Century
East: Abbot St. Theodore of Studion (O'Connor 99) [On the Nativity of the Blessed Mary 4 in PG 96:685A]:
Mary is the earth on which the thorns of sin did not grow. On the contrary, she brought forth a plant through which sin has been uprooted and taken away. She is an earth which was not cursed as was the first earth, fertile in thorns and thistles, but was blessed by the Lord; and her fruit is also blessed, as says the word of the Lord.
The same great saint adds [On the Nativity of the Blessed Mary 4 in PG 96:685D]: "She is the new dough that has been remade by God, the holy first-fruits of the human race, the root of that stem spoken of by the prophet."

East: Patriarch St. Photius the Great of Constantinople (O'Connor 102) [Homily 2 On the Annunciation]: "Mayest thou rejoice, furnace forged by God, in which the Creator, having leavened anew our nature with the most pure and virginal dough, has cleansed us of that sour and distressing staleness, renovating man into a new creature."

10th Century
East: Patriarch St. Euthymius I Syncellus of Constantinople before 917 [PO 16:501-502].

11th Century
West: St. Bruno the Confessor of Cologne (Founder of the Carthusians) (Lambruschini 163) [Homily on Psalm 101 in PL 152:1167D]: "that Mary is that uncorrupted earth which God blessed, and was therefore free from all contagion of sin." Latin: "Hæc est … incorrupta terra illa, cui benedixit Dominus, ab omni propterea peccati contagione libera, per quam vitæ viam agnovimus, et promissam vertatem accepimus."
Editor: Mary was free of sin, not in the sense that she contracted sin that God wiped away, but that God made sure she was never corrupted by original sin.

West: Bishop St. Peter Damian of Ostia (Doctor) (Lambruschini 80) [Sermon 40 On the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in PL 144:721C]: "The flesh of the Virgin, received from Adam, admitted none of Adam's guilt." Latin: "Caro Virginis, ex Adam sumpta, maculas Adam non admisit."
Editor: The Virgin received her nature from Adam, but God graced her by preventing her from inheriting the concupiscence that everyone else contracts from Adam.

West: Archbishop St. Anselm of Canterbury (Magnificent Doctor) (Lambruschini 80) [Commentary on 1 Corinthians 12]: "All have been dead in sin, whether original, or willfully incurred; no one has ever been excepted, save only the Mother of God." Latin: "Omnes mortui sunt in peccatis sive originalibus, sive voluntate additis, nemine prorsus excepto, demptâ Matre Dei."

East (venerated by Orthodox Christians): Archbishop Theophylact of Ohrid (O'Connor 106) [On the Presentation of the Blessed Mary 6 in PG 126:137A]: "She who surpassed all nature in purity and holiness, and who was justified from her mother's womb, had to be exempt from a law made not for the just but for sinners."
Editor: No sin ever defiled the Blessed Virgin Mary, or else she would not be greater than "all nature in purity and holiness."

13th Century
East (venerated by Orthodox Christians): Neophyte the Recluse of Cyprus before 1214 (O'Connor 107) [Homily on the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary 3 in PO 16:530,534].

West: Richard of St. Lawrence [De laudibus beatae Mariae Virginis]: "The guilt of sin is threefold, to wit, original, mortal, and venial. Now, the most Blessed Virgin Mary was exempt from this triple woe." Latin: "Væ culpæ est triplex, scilicet originalis, mortalis et venialis: porro sine isto triplice væ fuit Beatissima Virgo Maria."

West: St. Bonaventure (Seraphic Doctor) (Lambruschini 81) in 1275 [Sermon 2 on the Blessed Ever-Virgin Mary in Peltier 14:111]: "Our Lady was full of grace in her sanctification, a grace truly preservative against the defilement of original guilt." Latin: "Domina nostra fuit plena gratiâ in suâ sanctificatione, gratiâ, scilicet præservativâ contra fœditatem originalis culpæ."
Editor: The grace of Mary prevented her from being defiled by original sin.

The same radiant Doctor (Lambruschini 154) says in the same paragraph: "For it is to be believed that the Holy Ghost, as a very special favor, redeemed and preserved her from original sin by a new kind of sanctification, and this in the very moment of her conception; not that sin was in her, but that it otherwise would have been." Latin: "Credendum est enim, quod novo sanctificationis genere, in ejus conceptionis primordio, Spiritus sanctus eam a peccato originali (non quod infuit, sed quod infuisset) redemit, atque singulari gratia præservavit."

14th Century
East (Orthodox saint): Archbishop St. Gregory Palamas of Thessalonica (O'Connor 109) [Homily 14 on the Annunciation in PG 151:172A-C]: "Mary escaped the malediction of Eve. Free from the old servitude, she became the source of deliverance of men from it."
Editor: The malediction of Eve is original sin. Mary escaped this malediction because she did not contract original sin.

East (venerated by Orthodox Christians): Nicholas Cabasilas (O'Connor 110) [Homily on the Annunciation 3 in PO 19:486]:
The wall of separation, the barrier of enmity, did not exist for her, and everything which kept the human race away from God was removed in her. She alone made her peace [with God] before the general reconciliation; or rather she never needed reconciliation of any sort, because from the beginning she occupied the first place in the choir of the friends [of God].
The same writer, whom the Orthodox venerate as a saint, adds [Homily on the Dormition of the Blessed Mary 4 in PO 19:498]: "Earth she is, because she is from the earth; but she is a new earth, since she derives in no way from her ancestors and has not inherited the old leaven. She is … a new dough and has originated a new race."

West: St. Bernardine of Siena (Apostle of Italy) (Lambruschini 110) before 1380 [Sermon 49]: "It is wholly incredible that the Son of God would Himself vouchsafe to be born and assume flesh of a virgin who had once been tainted with original sin." Latin: "Non enim credendum est quod ipse Filius Dei voluerit nasci ex virgine, et sumere ejus carnem, quæ esset maculata aliquo originali peccato."

15th Century
West: St. Vincent Ferrer the Confessor of Valencia, O.P. (Lambruschini 101-102) in 1417 [Sermon 2 On The Nativity]: "Think not that it was as with us, who are conceived in sin; for, as soon as her soul was created, it was sanctified, and immediately the angels in Heaven celebrated the Feast of the Conception." Latin: "Non credatis quia fuerit sicut in nobis, qui in peccatis concipimur; sed statim ac anima fuit creata, fuit sanctificata, et statim angeli in cœlo celebrarunt festum Conceptionis."

East (venerated by Orthodox Christians): Archbishop Symeon of Thessalonica before 1429 [Response to Gabriel of Pentapolis 45 in PG 155:892C].

West: St. Lawrence Justinian, C.R.S.A. (Lambruschini 163) before 1456 [Sermon on the Annunciation to the Blessed Virgin Mary]: "she was prevented in blessings, from her very conception." Latin: "Ab ipsa namque sui conceptione, in benedictionibus est præventa."
Editor: God blessed the conception of Mary by preventing her soul from contracting original sin.

16th Century
West: Archbishop St. Thomas of Valencia (Lambruschini 110) in 1530 [Sermon 3 on the Nativity of the Virgin Mary]: "It became the Mother of God to be most pure, sinless, and unspotted. Wherefore, she was not only sanctified when she became a maid, but in the womb, and in her very conception, she was most holy." Latin: "Decuit matrem Dei esse purissimam, sine labe, sine peccato. Unde non solum quando puella sanctissima, et in utero sanctissima, et in conceptione sanctissima." He adds (Lambruschini 111) that "the soul, when it was infused, had no stain of sin from the flesh, neither did it contract any." Latin: "anima cùm infusa est nullam habuit ex carne, neque contraxit labem peccati."

Works Cited
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  • Jugie, Martin, A.A. L'Immaculée Conception dans l'Écriture sainte et dans la tradition orientale. Rome: Academia Mariana, 1952.
  • Lambruschini, Cardinal Luigi. A Polemical Treatise on the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin. New York: D. & J. Sadlier & Co., 1855. 24 Mar. 2009 <>.
  • O'Connor, Edward D. The Dogma of the Immaculate Conception: History and Significance. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1958.
  • Ullathorne, Archbishop William Bernard. The Immaculate Conception of the Mother of God: An Exposition. London: Richardson & Son, 1855. 24 Mar. 2009 <>.