Monday, June 22, 2009

Drange's Argument from the Bible

Mirror link

Hopefully this summer I'll have time to respond to the entire piece, but this is what I have so far.

(VII) Tyre

Editor: The prophecy does not restrict the agents of destruction to Nebuchadnezzar and his army; this is clear when you look at the chiastic structure linking Eze 26:3-5 and Eze 26:12-14 and attributing the actions of those verses to the many nations [JP Holding, "Steel-Belted Tyre: On The Tyre Prophecy of Ezekiel"].

Drange: (2) According to historians, Tyre recovered quickly following the attack by Alexander. In 64 B.C., it became part of the Roman Empire and prospered. It is mentioned in the present tense in the New Testament. [8] Christian buildings were constructed there in the Fourth Century A.D. and during the Crusades, but Muslims later destroyed them.
Editor: "Built no more" is ancient hyperbolic war trash talk [cf. Is 34:9-10], just like Eze 26:15-21. These verses do not imply literal permanent destruction, but reflect the gravity of Tyre's situation [JP Holding, "Steel-Belted Tyre: On The Tyre Prophecy of Ezekiel"].

Drange: (3) Tyre still exists today. It is a city on the coast of Lebanon, to be found on any map of that country. It has been mentioned in recent times in connection with retaliatory raids upon Hezbollah forces in Lebanon by Israel in their ongoing warfare.
Editor: Q.v. answer to (2).

Drange: It does not seem, then, that Ezekiel's prophecies came true. He said that Tyre would "be no more" but that did not happen. Similar considerations could be raised in connection with all the other prophecies that McDowell and others have claimed to have been fulfilled in history.
Editor: Q.v. answer to (2).

3. Unfulfilled Prophecies

Drange: 7. According to Mt 12:40, Christ will be buried for three nights, but he died on a Friday and by Sunday the tomb was empty. Between Friday and Sunday, there are just two nights, not three.
Editor: Christ used Hebrew idiom that reckoned parts of days and nights as whole days and nights, counting from evening to evening [St. Thomas Aquinas, ST III, q. 51, art. 4, ad 1].

Drange: 17. According to Isa 17:1, Damascus will be destroyed, but in fact Damascus is one of the few ancient cities that has never been destroyed. [The fact that so many were destroyed makes prophecies of the future destruction of ancient cities rather unremarkable.] If Isaiah had predicted that Damascus would never be destroyed, then that would have been remarkable.
Editor: This prophecy has the figurative meaning that Damascus will lose its power [JP Holding, "Carr Repairs: The Jury's Noisy Crash on Biblical Prophecy"].

Drange: 21. According to Isa 34:9-10, Edom (the land between the Dead Sea and Gulf of Aqaba) will become burning pitch: no one will ever pass through it again. But in truth that has never happened to Edom. People have passed through it for thousands of years.
Editor: The prophecy employs vivid Semitic hyperbole [JP Holding, "Carr Repairs: The Jury's Noisy Crash on Biblical Prophecy"].

4. The Resurrection

Drange: Fifth, the Biblical accounts of the resurrection are not consistent and that tends to cast doubt on them. They contradict one another regarding such matters as how many women went to Jesus's tomb, whether it was still dark out, whether Mary Magdalene told people about the tomb, whether she went back to it with them, whether there was just one angel there or two, whether the angels were inside of the tomb or outside, whether they got there before the women and disciples, and what they looked like, whether there were guards at the tomb, whether Peter went there alone, whether Jesus appeared first to him (1 Co 15:3-5), whether he appeared at all to Mary Magdalene, whether he appeared to her at the tomb, whether she was then alone, whether she recognized him immediately, and whether it was after the disciples were told, whether Peter went to the tomb before or after the others were told and whether he was alone, whether Jesus appeared specially to two disciples, whether they recognized him immediately, whether he later appeared to the others as the two were speaking or afterwards, whether he scolded the others for not believing the two, whether he appeared to the disciples just once or three times, whether the first appearance was in Galilee, whether they all recognized him immediately, whether he ascended to heaven right afterwards, whether he ascended from Jerusalem (Mark), Bethany (Luke), or Mt. Olivet (Acts), and whether he appeared to the Twelve, to over 500, and then specially to James (1 Co 15:5-7).
Editor: The accounts are complementary, not contradictory.
Drange: Here are references to support the alleged contradictions involved in the Bible's account of Jesus's post-resurrection appearances:
Question Answers
1. How many women went to Jesus's tomb?
One - John 20:1-18 Three - Mk 16:1-8 Two - Mt 28:1-8 Many - Lu 23:55-24:10
Editor: Many; St. John mentions one because St. Mary Magdalene loved Christ more than the other women who ministered to Him [St. Augustine the Great, Harmony of the Gospels]. St. Mary Magdalene [Jn 20:1], St. Mary the wife of St. Cleophas [Mt 28:1], and St. Salome [Mk 16:1] went to the tomb together. St. Mary Magdalene left to tell Sts. Peter and John [Jn 20:2]. While St. Mary Magdalene was gone, St. Salome and St. Mary the wife of St. Cleophas left [Mt 28:8; Mk 16:8], and St. Joanna and some Galilean women came to the tomb [Lk 24:3] and left [Lk 24:9]. Christ appeared at the tomb to St. Mary Magdalene alone.
Drange: (In what follows, the middle column supplies references for a "Yes" answer and the right-hand column supplies references for a "No" answer.)
2. Was it still dark out? John 20:1 Mt 28:1; Mk 16:2
Editor: Yes, since the sun was just rising.
3. Did Mary Magdalene tell any men about the tomb? Mt 28:8; Lu 24:9-10; John 20:2 Mk 16:8
Editor: Yes. St. Mary, wife of St. Cleophas, and St. Salome ran back to the city [Mt 28:8; Mk 16:8] before St. Mary Magdalene returned to the tomb [Jn 20:11], but they did not tell these events to any man while on the way [Mk 16:8].
4. Did she go back to the tomb with any of them? John 20:2-11 Mt 28:1-10,16; Mk 16:8-14; Lu 24:9-12
Editor: Yes, but Sts. John and Peter reached the tomb before her. Mt 28:8 and Mk 16:8 refer to St. Mary, wife of St. Cleophas, and St. Salome. Lk 24:9 refers to St. Joanna and the Galilean women.
5. Was there just one angel at Jesus's tomb? Mt 28:2-5; Mk 16:5-6 (There were two.) Lu 24:4-5; John 20:11-13
Editor: Yes, at the time of the angelic startling of the guards [Mt 28:2-4] and at the time of the angelic appearance to St. Mary, wife of St. Cleophas, and St. Salome. The latter saw only one angel [Mt 28:5; Mk 16:5] clothed in white inside the tomb [Mk 16:5]. These women left [Mt 28:8; Mk 16:8]. Then some Galilean women and St. Joanna arrived at the tomb and saw two standing angels in radiant garments [Lk 24:4] inside [Lk 24:3]. These women then left [Lk 24:9]. After Sts. John and Peter came to the tomb and left, St. Mary Magdalene, who had been following them to the tomb, arrived at the tomb and saw, on the inside [Jn 20:11], two sitting angels in white [Jn 20:12].
6. Were the angels inside the tomb? Mk 16:5; John 20:11-12 (The one angel was outside.) Mt 28:2
Editor: Yes. St. Matthew refers to the one angel of the Lord on the outside who rolled away the stone and terrified the guards before the women arrived at the tomb. St. Mark refers to the one angel that St. Mary, wife of St. Cleophas, and St. Salome saw on the inside. St. Luke refers to the two angels that St. Joanna and some Galilean women saw on the inside [Lk 24:3-4], before St. Mary Magdalene returned from fetching Sts. Peter and John. St. John refers to the two angels St. Mary Magdalene saw after Sts. Peter and John examined the tomb and went home [Jn 20:10].
7. Were there guards at the tomb? Mt 27:62-66, 28:2-4,11-15 Mk 15:44-16:10; Lu 23:50-24:12; John 19:38-20:12
Editor: Yes, but they left before the arrival of the women. The Matthean incident already took place by the time the women came [St. Augustine the Great, Harmony of the Gospels]. St. Matthew provides a flashback.
8. Did the angel(s) look like lightning? Mt 28:2-4 (Humanlike) Mk 16:5; Lu 24:4
Editor: Yes; St. Matthew refers to the one angel of the Lord on the outside who rolled away the stone and terrified the guards before the women arrived at the tomb. St. Mark refers to the one angel that St. Mary, wife of St. Cleophas, and St. Salome saw on the inside. St. Luke refers to the two angels that St. Joanna and some Galilean women saw on the inside. Besides, there is nothing to prevent a humanlike angel from having a lightning-like=radiant face.
9. Did the angel(s) get to the tomb first? Mk 16:5 Lu 24:2-4; John 20:1-12
Editor: Yes.
10. Did Peter go alone? Lu 24:12 John 20:2-6
Editor: No; St. Peter went with St. John, and St. John got to the tomb first. Mk 16:5 is not discussing St. Peter.
11. Did Jesus appear first to Cephas (Peter)? 1Co 15:3-5 Mt 28:9; Mk 16:9; Lu 24:9-15; John 20:14
Editor: No; Jesus first appeared to St. Mary Magdalene [Mk 16:9]. St. Paul is referring to the first appearance of Christ to another male [St. Augustine the Great, Harmony of the Gospels].
12. Did he appear at all to Mary Magdalene? Mt 28:9; Mk 16:9; John 20:11-14 Lu 24:1-51; 1 Co 15:3-8
Editor: Yes, even though Sts. Luke and Paul do not mention this appearance.
13. Did he appear to her at the tomb after the disciples were told? John 20:1-14 (Not at the tomb, and before they were told) Mt 28:1-9; Mk 16:1-10
Editor: Yes, taking disciples to mean Sts. Peter and John, but not yet the other disciples. Mt 28:9 refers to the appearance to St. Mary, the wife of St. Cleophas, and St. Salome on their way away from the tomb. The Markan verses Drange cited do not say or imply that Christ did not appear to St. Mary Magdalene at the tomb.
14. Was she alone when Jesus appeared to her? Mk 16:9-10; John 20:10-14 (The other Mary was with her.) Mt 28:1-9
Editor: Yes. St. Mary Magdalene does not feature in Mt 28:2-9, since she left before Mt 28:5 in order to inform Sts. Peter and John. Mt 28:9 refers to the appearance to St. Mary, the wife of St. Cleophas, and St. Salome on their way away from the tomb.
15. Did she recognize him immediately? Mt 28:9; Mk 16:9-10 John 20:14
Editor: No; she thought He was the gardener. Mt 28:9 is not even an appearance to St. Mary Magdalene. After He said her name, she recognized Him. Mk 16:9-10 does not imply an affirmative answer, but simply omits her initial failure to recognize Christ, probably on account of space constraints and different intentions.
16. Did Peter go to the tomb before the others were told about it? (But he was not alone.) John 20:1-3,18 (It was after, and he went alone.) Lu 24:9-12
Editor: Yes. Lk 24:12, on account of space constraints, refers to what had previously transpired, and its omission of the name of St. John does not mean that St. Peter went alone [cf. Jn 20:1].
17. Did Jesus specially appear to two disciples? Mk 16:12; Lu 24:13-31 Mt 28:16-18; John 20:19-29
Editor: Yes; this occurred after His appearance to St. Peter and before His appearance to the Eleven, excluding St. Thomas, in Jerusalem. Sts. Matthew and John refer to later appearances.
18. Did they recognize him immediately? Mk 16:12-13 Lu 24:13-16
Editor: No. Mk 16:12-13 does not imply an affirmative answer; its very mention of Christ appearing in another form implies that that the two disciples did not recognize Him immediately.
19. Did he later appear as they spoke to the others? Lu 24:36 (It was after.) Mk 16:14
Editor: Yes. Sts. Mark and Luke are discussing two separate occasions on which Christ appeared to the disciples in Jerusalem; Mk 16:14 occurs later than the appearance of Lk 24:36.
20. Did he scold the others for not believing them? Mk 16:14 Lu 24:35-51
Editor: Yes. Sts. Mark and Luke are discussing two separate occasions on which Christ appeared to the disciples in Jerusalem; Mk 16:14 occurs later than the appearance of Lk 24:36.
21. Did Jesus appear just once to the disciples? Mk 16:14-19; Lu 24:36-51 (It was thrice.) John 20:19-26, 21:1-2,14
Editor: No; Sts. Mark and Luke have telescoped their narratives.
22. Was the 1st appearance to them in Galilee? Mt 28:9-10,16-18 Lu 24:33-36,49-51; John 20:18-26; Ac 1:4
Editor: No. St. Matthew, as part of his telescoping process, omits the earlier appearances in Jerusalem (without St. Thomas [Jn 20:24]), the sea of Tiberias, and Jerusalem (with St. Thomas [Jn 20:26]).
23. Did they all recognize him immediately? Mk 16:14-20; John 20:19-20 Mt 28:16-17; Lu 24:36-41
Editor: Not at the first appearance in Jerusalem [Lk 24:36-37]. Jn 20:19-20 does not imply an affirmative answer for the latter incident, and mentions that the disciples recognized Him after He showed them His wounds. Mk 16:14 does not imply an affirmative answer, either.
24. Did he ascend to heaven immediately afterwards? Mt 28:9-10,16-20; Mk 16:14-19; Lu 24:36-51 John 20:19-26, 21:1; Ac 1:1-9; 1 Co 15:3-8
Editor: No. The accounts are telescoped.
25. Did he appear to them twice, eight days apart? John 20:19-26 Mt 28:9-20; Mk 16:14-19; Lu 24:36-51
Editor: Yes. Jn 20:19-26 occurs before Mt 28:16 and Mk 16:14, but after Lk 24:36.
26. Did he appear to the Twelve, to over 500, & then specially to James? 1 Co 15:5-7 Mt 27, 28; Mk 16; Lu 24; John 20, 21
Editor: Yes. The Gospels omit the appearance to the 500 brothers and the special appearance to St. James the Little, who became Bishop of Jerusalem.
27. Did Jesus ascend to heaven from Bethany? Lu 24:50-51 (From Mt. Olivet) Ac 1:9-12; (Jerusalem) Mk 16:14-19
Editor: Yes; all three are true. Does that kid go to school in New York, New York City, or the Bronx? Bethany is on the slopes of Mt. Olivet, which is on the east side of Jerusalem.
28. Was Jesus the only one to ascend to heaven? John 3:13 (Enoch and Elijah too) Heb 11:5; 2Ki 2:11
Editor Yes. Drange omits Gen 5:23-24 (about St. Enoch) and 1 Macc 2:58 (about St. Elijah). 2 Ki 2:11 means that St. Elijah went into the sky (shamiyim), not that he went into the beatific vision [JP Holding, "Stairway to Heaven: Elijah vs. Jesus?"]. Nor do Gen 5:23-24 and Heb 11:5 mean that St. Enoch entered the beatific vision (went into the empyrean Heaven) prior to the coming of Christ. At the time of Jn 3:13, Heaven was open to no man on account of the original sin infecting the human nature (but not the person) of the righteous forefathers [St. Thomas Aquinas, ST III-S, q. 69, art. 6, ad 1]. Christ had, on several occasions prior to His Incarnation, descended from Heaven in a theophany and ascended back to Heaven.
29. Did Paul's companions hear Jesus's voice? Ac 9:7 Ac 22:9, 26:14
Editor: Yes; they heard (genitive case) a noise, but did not hear (accusative case) a communication of thoughts.

5. More Contradictions

1. Did fowl (birds) come out of the water? Ge 1:20 (Out of the ground) Ge 2:19
Editor: No; Drange is using the faulty KJV translation. God created birds from the ground.
2. Did two of each kind of fowl enter Noah's ark? Ge 6:19-20 (It was seven of each.) Ge 7:3
Editor: Seven of each kind of fowl; they entered the Ark in pairs, except for the seventh member of each kind of fowl.
3. Does Satan ever tell the truth? Ge 3:4-7,22 John 8:44
Editor: If, on occasion, Satan tells the truth, he does it so that he can deceive [St. Thomas Aquinas, ST I, q. 64, art. 2, ad 5]. In Gen 3, Satan lied that Adam and Eve would not die, and deceived them by misleading them into thinking that they would more perfectly know good by having their eyes opened.
4. Did everyone speak the same language? Ge 11:1 Ge 10:5,20,31
Editor: Yes. St. Moses gives a general overview of the post-Babel spread of different languages in Gen 10, and focuses on the precipitating event, the tower of Babel, in Gen 11.
5. Was Salah the son of Arphaxad? Ge 11:12 (His grandson) Lu 3:35-36
Editor: Salah was the grandson of Arphaxad, but the Massoretic text of Gen 11:12 telescopes the genealogy.
8. Was Keturah Abraham's wife? Ge 25:1 (His concubine) 1Ch 1:32
Editor: Yes. Keturah was the wife of St. Abraham with respect to the first end of marriage (the good of the offspring), but was his concubine with regard to the secondary end of marriage (household management), because she was not his mate in that respect [St. Thomas Aquinas, ST III-S, q. 65, art. 5, corp.].
9. Were the Israelites in bondage for 400 years? Ge 15:13; (It was 430 years.) Ex 12:40
Editor: Yes. The Israelites were in Egypt for 430 years, and were enslaved for 400 of those years.
10. Did Potiphar buy Joseph from Midianites? Ge 37:36 (From Ishmaelites) Ge 39:1
Editor: Yes; both are true because the terms are used interchangeably.
12. Were Levites to begin to serve at age 30? Nu 4:30 (Age 25) Nu 8:24
Editor: Yes, at the time. The age changed over time, becoming only 20 at one point [Ezr 3:8].
14. Did David kill Goliath with a sling + a stone? 1Sa 17:50 (With a sword) 1Sa 17:51
Editor: St. David mortally wounded Goliath with a sling and stone [1 Sa 17:50], then hurried his death by decapitating him with a sword [1 Sa 17:51].
15. Was Ahimelech the priest who gave David the bread? 1Sa 21:1,6, 22:20 (His son, Abiathar) Mk 2:25-26
Editor: Yes. Our Lord designated Abiathar by the title for which he is remembered, even though Abiathar was not high priest at the time.
18. Did Saul enquire of God? 1Sa 28:6 1Ch 10:13-14
Editor:: Yes (sha'al), but, according to the sense of St. Ezra, not with due diligence and sincerity (darash) [JP Holding, "Who Killed Saul? A Contradiction Among Cousins?"]. The original words, both translated as enquire, are different and do not have the same meaning. Be mindful of the original languages.
19. Did Saul die by his own hand? 1Sa 31:4-5 (By an Amalekite) 2Sa 1:4-10; (By Philistines) 2Sa 21:12; (By the Lord) 1Ch 10:14
Editor: Yes [1 Sa 31:4-5]. The Amalekite lied [2 Sa 1:4-10], the Philistines defeated him in battle [2 Sa 21:12], and God condemned him to die in such woeful circumstances [1 Ch 10:14], according to JP Holding ["Who Killed Saul? A Contradiction Among Cousins?"]..
28. Did he have 40,000 stalls for his horses? 1Ki 4:26 (Only 4000) 2Ch 9:25
Editor: No. Only 4000; 1 Ki 4:26 has a scribal error.
31. Did King Josiah die at Megiddo? 2Ki 23:29-30 (At Jerusalem) 2Ch 35:23-24
Editor: Yes. St. Ezra said Jerusalem in order to liken the death of King Josiah to the death of King Ahab [1 Ki 22:34-38], according to apologist JP Holding ["Addendum: The BE Newsletter: Continued Mishaps from the Creator of EBE"].
32. Was Jehoiachin age 8 when he began to reign? 2Ch 36:9 (He was 18.) 2Ki 24:8
Editor: No; he was 18. 2 Ch 36:9 is the result of a scribal error (corrected in the NAB to which this verse is hyperlinked).
34. Was he then age 22? 2Ki 8:26 (Age 42) 2Ch 22:2 (in Hebrew sources)
Editor: Yes. The LXX (Septuagint) is correct. 2 Chr 22:2 is a Hebrew scribal error since if he was 42 Ahaziah would be older than his father.
39. Was Joseph's father Jacob? Mt 1:16 (It was Heli.) Lu 3:23
[There are many other discrepancies between the lists in Matthew 1 and Luke 3. Some say that the list in Luke shows Mary's genealogy, but the key expression in Lu 3:23 is clearly "son of Heli", not "son-in-law of Heli". The same word translated there as "son" was used throughout the entire list.]
Editor: Yes; Jacob is the natural father of St. Joseph.  Heli is also known as St. Joachim, who was St. Joseph's father-in-law; eight parallel cases are Abram=St. Abraham [Gen 17:5], Jacob=St. Israel [Gen 32:29], Simon=St. Peter [Mt 10:2], Nathaniel=St. Bartholomew [Jn 1:45], Levi=St. Matthew [Mk 2:14; Lk 5:27], Lebbaeus=St. Jude Thaddeus, John=St. Mark [Acts 13:5,13], Saul=St. Paul [Acts 13:9], etc.
41. Did they go to Egypt? Mt 2:14-15 (Directly to Nazareth) Lu 2:39
Editor: Yes. They went from Nazareth to Bethlehem, where our Lord was born, and after presenting Him in the Temple, they went back to Bethlehem and were visited by the Magi Sts. Melchior, Balthasar, and Gaspar. After that they fled into Egypt, and then returned and settled in Nazareth.
42. At Jesus's baptism, did the voice address Jesus? Mk 1:11 (It addressed the crowd.) Mt 3:17
Editor: Yes; St. Matthew phrased it so that it is clear that God the Father wanted to convey to the crowd that Jesus is the Son of God, a fact that Jesus already knew [St. Augustine the Great, Harmony of the Gospels 2:14:31].
43. Did Jesus go to Cana soon after his baptism? John 1:29-36, 2:1-2 (To the wilderness for 40 days) Mt 3:13-17, 4:1-2; Mk 1:9-13
Editor: No. Jesus went to the wilderness before Jn 1:29.
58. Was it near the end of his ministry that Jesus cleansed the temple? Mt 21:10-12 (It was near the beginning.) John 2:11-15
Editor: Yes. Jesus cleansed the Temple twice [JP Holding, "Gee, Wally! A Response to '1001 Errors in the Bible'" 515].
62. Did the soldiers clothe Jesus in scarlet (the color of royalty)? Mt 27:28 (It was purple, the symbol of infamy.) Mk 15:17
Editor: Yes, except that I believe Drange has the symbolism backwards. Both are true, because scarlet is the color the robe came out with [Mt 27:28], after having been made with a type of dye called purple [Mk 15:17; cf. Acts 16:14].
63. Did Simon the Cyrenian bear Jesus's cross? Mt 27:32; Mk 15:21; Lu. 23:26 John 19:16-17
Editor: Yes. St. Simon the Cyrenian bore the Cross after a certain time; it may be that St. John did not witness this first hand [Jn 18:15; 19:17-24], but he resumed being a first hand witness at Jn 19:25 [JP Holding, "Messianic Monkeyshines: The Jury's Passover Plot Exposed" 43].
64. Was Jesus offered wine mixed with myrrh to drink? Mk 15:23 (It was vinegar mixed with gall.) Mt 27:34
Editor: Yes. Both are true. Myrrh, which St. Matthew had mentioned as one of the gifts (note the contrast) to baby Jesus in Mt 2:11, is included in gall, which means a bitter substance [JP Holding, "Matthew Apologetics Bible Study"].
65. Was Jesus reviled by both thieves on the cross? Mt 27:44 (Only by one) Lu 23:39-43
No; Gestas reviled Him, but St. Dismas was penitent and did not do so. Sts. Matthew and Mark, for the sake of concision, employ a manner of speech wherein the plural stands for the singular, which way of speaking is employed by other sacred writers [St. Augustine the Great, Harmony of the Gospels 3:16:53]. "They closed the mouths of lions" [Heb 11:33] stands for St. Daniel alone, "they were … sawed in two" [Heb 11:37] describes St. Isaiah alone, and "the kings of the earth" [Ps 2:2], in its New Testament application, stands for one man, Herod Antipas [Acts 4:26-27], as St. Augustine the Great observes in the same passage.
66. Was the cross inscription a complete sentence? Mt 27:37; Lu 23:38 (Just 5 or 8 words) Mk 15:26; John 19:19
Editor: Yes. The sign was written in three languages, and some of the Evangelists could have just mentioned part of the whole message [JP Holding, "Gee, Wally! A Response to '1001 Errors in the Bible'" 455].
67. Did it mention Jesus? Mt 27:37; John 19:19 Mk 15:26; Lu 23:38
Editor: Yes. Q.v. 66 above.
68. Was Jesus crucified at the third hour? Mk 15:25 (The sixth or ninth hour) John 19:14-16; Mk 15:34
WRH: Yes, according to Hebrew time. They crucified the Lord of glory [1 Cor 2:8] at 9:00 A.M. [Mk 15:25]; St. John, following the Roman time, says that the judgment before Pontius Pilate was at the sixth hour (6:00 A.M.) [Jn 19:14-16]. Our Lord died at 3:00 P.M. [Mk 15:34].
69. Were his last words, "It is finished"? John 19:30 (They were "into your hands I commit my spirit.") Lu 23:46
Editor: No. St. John omits the final words.
70. Will all 12 sit on thrones? Mt 19:28 (Not Judas.) Mk 14:18-21
Editor: Yes, except for Judas Iscariot. Christ refers to those who have followed Him, i.e., until the end of their lives, and He means that St. Matthias will be on the 12th seat, since the traitor Judas Iscariot is damned [Mt 26:24].
72. Did Judas hang himself? Mt 27:5 (He fell & burst open.) Ac 1:18
Editor: Yes. Judas Iscariot fell and burst open after hanging himself.
74. Did Jesus want his apostles to baptize people? Mt 28:19 1Co 1:17
Editor: Yes. St. Paul is talking about his particular mission, and checking the allegiance of certain Corinthians to those who baptized them, so that they would not, like the Donatist heretics, think that the efficacy of the sacrament depends on the merits of the minister [St. Thomas Aquinas, ST III, q. 67, art. 2, ad 1].
6. Factual Errors
Drange: (12) Genesis describes magical things and events, such as magical trees (2:9, 3:24), a woman being created from a man's rib (2:21-23), a talking snake (3:1-5), etc. But we know that there never were such things or events.
Editor: Fallacy of begging the question against miracles.
Drange: (19) According to Ge 17:17, Abraham's wife bore a child at age 90, and according to Ge 19:26, Lot's wife turned into a pillar of salt. But such events are physically impossible. This is also true of dozens of other alleged miracles throughout the Bible. We know they are mythical rather than factual because they are contrary to natural law.
Editor: Fallacy of begging the question against miracles.
Drange: (22) According to Joshua 10:12-13, the sun stood still in the sky. The author probably thought of the sun as going around the earth, but even if we take it to mean that the earth suddenly stopped rotating on its axis, objects would have been hurled off by the centrifugal force, which didn't happen. Hence, the account is erroneous.
Editor: Fallacy of begging the question against miracles.
Drange: (26) According to Jonah 1:17, 2:10, a man lived for three days inside the belly of a fish (or a whale, according to Mt 12:40), but that is impossible.
Editor: Fallacy of begging the question against miracles.
Drange: (27) According to Mt 2:9, a star moved in the sky until it was directly over the town of Bethlehem, but we know that that is impossible.
Editor: Fallacy of begging the question against miracles. It was not a star from outer space, but probably a specially created star in our atmosphere that God moved around according to His will and wisdom [St. Thomas Aquinas, ST III, 35, art. 7, corp.].
Drange: (30) According to Mt 17:27, Jesus prophesied that Peter would find a coin in the mouth of the first fish he catches in the sea by hook. It seems incredible that the prophecy was fulfilled. (The Bible does not inform us whether or not it was.)
Editor: Fallacy of begging the question against miracles. The fulfillment of this prophecy is implicit.
When I get the chance I will post the rest of what I have thus far.