Sunday, January 31, 2010

Biographies of the Popes

1. Recently I've been posting biographies of the early popes. I've attempted to give the most reliable and concise but rich account, and filter through all the conflicting data according to the instruction of St. Paul the Apostle [1 Thess 5:21]: "Test everything; retain what is good." May the Lord make good use of me, a poor sinner, to spread the truth about the history of the Church and her princes, and those who usurped the throne of her princes. Amen.

2. If all of the alleged acts of the pontiff in question are apocryphal, I say something to the effect, "What he did as pope is unknown," without mentioning the specific writings or actions attributed to the successor of St. Peter. I'll probably give concise biographies for all the popes. This is the info I try to fill in, but much of it is missing for the early popes: father, mother, nationality, date of birth, place of birth, education, career prior to becoming pope, election details, date pontificate began, date pontificate ended, acts, writings, date of death, place of death, cause of death, place of burial, feast day, and miracles, if any are recorded. I hope to do many evaluations, as well (e.g., see my post on controversial popes for scholarly evaluations on a plethora of maligned pontiffs). I synthesize data from the old Catholic Encyclopedia (1913) and the New Catholic Encyclopedia (2003). I also use the generally excellent resource The Oxford Dictionary of the Popes by the late Anglican scholar J. N. D. Kelly, which, on occasion, falls for calumnies against various controversial popes (e.g., in the cases of St. Marcellinus and St. Liberius).

The numbering below will eventually be a little different because of my humble opinion that Leo VIII and Sylvester III were antipopes (pace the latest Annuario Pontificio, which is not so firmly decisive).

Here's my progress so far (15 popes):
3. St. Anacletus the Martyr (76-88)
5. St. Evaristus (97-105)
6. St. Alexander I (106-115)
8. St. Telesphorus the Martyr (125-136)
10. St. Pius I (142-155)
11. St. Anicetus (155-166)
19. St. Anterus (235-236)
22. St. Lucius I (253-254)
27. St. Eutychian (275-283)
28. St. Gaius (283-296)
100. Valentine (827)
112. Boniface VI (896)
114. Romanus (897)
118. Leo V (903)
123. Leo VI (928-929)

Antipopes: (1 antipope)
[119]. Christopher (903-904)

Progress on the Lives of the Popes

For the completed first-edition lives of various popes on this site, I have to scour various sources (most of them unavailable to me over Christmas break) in order to see if there is new information to warrant a second edition (I'll put ones I've read in bold font as time passes):

St. Anacletus the Martyr (79-91)
*ERICH CASPAR, Geschichte de Papsttums von den Anfängen bis zur Höhe der Weltherrschaft (Tübingen 1930–33) 1:8–16.
*H. HEMMER, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. A. VACANT et al. (Paris 1909) 1.1:1142-1143.
*JOHANN PETER KIRSCH, Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques 2:1407–08.
*GEORG SCHWAIGER, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, 3d. ed. (Freiburg 1993) 1:573-574.
St. Alexander I (105-116)
*G. BAREILLE, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. A. VACANT et al. (Paris 1909) 1.1:708-709.
*ERICH CASPAR, Geschichte des Papsttums von den anfägen bis zur Höhe der Weltherrschaft 1:8–16.
*A. DUFOURCQ, Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques 2:204–206.
*JOHANNES HALLER, Das Papsttum: Idee und Wirklichkeit (Stuttgart 1950–53) 1:18-20.
*GEORG SCHWAIGER, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, 3d. ed. (Freiburg 1993) 1:367.
St. Lucius I (253-254)
*ÉMILE AMANN, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. A. VACANT et al., (Paris 1926) 9.1:1056–57.
*ERICH CASPAR, Geschichte des Papsttums von den anfägen bis zur Höhe der Weltherrschaft 1:70.
*GEORG SCHWAIGER, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. J. HOFER and K. RAHNER (Freiberg 1957–65) 6:1176.
St. Eutychian (275-283)
*ERICH CASPAR, Geschichte des Papsttums von den anfägen bis zur Höhe der Weltherrschaft 1:43,84.
*H. MAROT, Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques, ed. A. BAUDRILLART, et al. (Paris 1912–) 16:91-92.
*GEORG SCHWAIGER, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, ed. J. HOFER and KARL RAHNER (Freiberg 1957–65) 3:1214.
St. Gaius (283-296)
*Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques, ed. ALFRED BAUDRILLART, et al. (Paris 1912–) 11:237–238.
*ERICH CASPAR, Geschichte des Papsttums von den anfägen bis zur Höhe der Weltherrschaft 1:43-44,50-51,84,97.
*HENRI LECLERCQ, Dictionnaire d'archéologie chrétienne et de liturgie. ed. F. CABROL, HENRI LECLERCQ and H. I. MARROU (Paris 1907–53) 2.2:1738–39.
*GEORG SCHWAIGER, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, 3d. ed. (Freiburg 1995) 2:877.
Valentine (827)
*ÉMILE AMANN, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. A. VACANT (Paris 1947) 15.2:2497.
Boniface VI (896)
*H. HEMMER, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. A. VACANT et al., (Paris 1910) 2.1:991.
*F. BAIX, Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques, ed. ALFRED BAUDRILLART et al. (Paris 1912) 9:899–900.
*JOHANNES HALLER, Das Papsttum: Idee und Wirklichkeit (Stuttgart 1950–53) 2:191, 545.
*BERNARD JUNGMANN, Dissertationes selectae in historiam ecclesiasticam 4:22.
*SEBASTIAN SCHOLZ, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, 3d. ed. (Freiburg 1995) 2:579.
*FRANZ XAVER SEPPELT, Geschichte der Päpste von den Anfängen bis zur Mitte des 20. Jh. (Munich 1934) 2:341.
Romanus (897)
*EMILE AMANN, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. A. VACANT et al., (Paris 1937) 13.2:2847.
*FRANZ XAVER SEPPELT, Geschichte der Päpste von den Anfängen bis zur Mitte des 20. Jh. (Munich 1955) 2:342.

Friday, January 29, 2010

Internal Evidence of Matthean Priority

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The old Catholic Encyclopedia gives some good internal arguments that St. Matthew wrote his Gospel before St. Mark.{1} Lots of scholars assume that St. Matthew depended on St. Mark for his narrative, but it is hard to explain the following facts within the framework of the theory that St. Matthew had St. Mark's Gospel before him.

Mk 1:13: and He remained in the desert for forty days, tempted by Satan. He was among wild beasts, and the angels ministered to Him.
Mt 4:1-3: Then Jesus was led by the Spirit into the desert to be tempted by the devil. He fasted for forty days and forty nights, and afterwards He was hungry.
Comment: Why would St. Matthew omit St. Mark's mention of "wild beasts" and ministering angels?{2}

Mk 1:15: "This is the time of fulfillment. The Kingdom of God is at hand. Repent, and believe in the Gospel."
Mt 4:17: From that time on, Jesus began to preach and say, "Repent, for the Kingdom of Heaven is at hand."
Comment: Why would St. Matthew omits St. Mark's mention of "believe in the Gospel"?{3}

Mk 14:56,59: Many gave false witness against Him, but their testimony did not agree. … Even so their testimony did not agree.
Mt 26:60: but they found none, though many false witnesses came forward. Finally two came forward...
Comment: Why would St. Matthew omit St. Mark's mention of contradictory witnesses?{4}

Mk 1:19-20: He walked along a little farther and saw James, the son of Zebedee, and his brother John. They too were in a boat mending their nets. Then He called them. So they left their father Zebedee in the boat along with the hired men and followed Him.
Mt 4:21-22: He walked along from there and saw two other brothers, James, the son of Zebedee, and his brother John. They were in a boat, with their father Zebedee, mending their nets. He called them, and immediately they left their boat and their father and followed Him.
Comment: Why would St. Matthew add the tautology of "two ... brothers" to St. Mark's account?{5} Why would St. Matthew omit "the hired men" from St. Mark's account, since doing so would make the illustrious Sts. James the Greater and John the Theologian seem like violators of the Fourth Commandment [Ex 20:12]?{6}

Mk 5:13,18-19: And He let them, and the unclean spirits came out and entered the swine. The herd of about two thousand rushed down a steep bank into the sea, where they were drowned. ... As He was getting into the boat, the man who had been possessed pleaded to remain with Him. But He would not permit him but told him instead, "Go home to your family and announce to them all that the Lord in His pity has done for you."
Mt 8:28-34: When He came to the other side, to the territory of the Gadarenes, two demoniacs who were coming from the tombs met Him. They were so savage that no one could travel by that road. They cried out, "What have You to do with us, Son of God? Have You come here to torment us before the appointed time?" Some distance away a herd of many swine was feeding. The demons pleaded with Him, "If You drive us out, send us into the herd of swine." And He said to them, "Go then!" They came out and entered the swine, and the whole herd rushed down the steep bank into the sea where they drowned. The swineherds ran away, and when they came to the town they reported everything, including what had happened to the demoniacs. Thereupon the whole town came out to meet Jesus, and when they saw Him they begged Him to leave their district.
Comment: Why would St. Matthew omit St. Mark's mention of the number of swine,{7} or St. Mark's mention that our Lord commanded the grateful Gaderene demoniac to inform others of the exorcism rather than follow Him as a disciple?{8}

If St. Matthew depended on St. Mark's Gospel, he would have referred to Mk 12:41-44 in Mt 22-23,{9} and he wouldn't have made St. Mark's third [Mk 1:40-45] and second [Mk 1:23-31] miracle accounts his first and third miracle accounts [Mt 8:1-15], respectively.{10}
Notes & References
{1} MacRory, Joseph. "Gospel of Saint Mark." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 29 Jan. 2010 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09674b.htm>.
{2} Ibid.
{3} Ibid.
{4} Ibid.
{5} Ibid.
{6} Ibid.
{7} Ibid.
{8} Ibid.
{9} Ibid.
{10} Ibid.

When Does the Gospel of St. Mark End?

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My thanks to James E. Snapp, Jr. for the corrections!

Mk 16:9-20 is authentic and canonical. Although Mk 16:9-20 is not in B and Aleph, it is in all the other uncial manuscripts: A, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, M, N, S, U, V, X, Gamma, Delta, Pi, Sigma, Omega, and Beth.{1} It is in a great many cursive manuscripts,{2} all the Latin manuscripts except k,{3} all Syriac manuscripts except the Sinaitic version,{4} in most Coptic{5} and Gothic{6} manuscripts, and in most Armenian manuscripts.{7} It was probably used in the Liturgy of the Greek Catholic Church in the third century,{8} and was definitely used in the Liturgy in the fourth century.{9} Second century Church Fathers Bishop St. Irenaeus of Lyons [Against Heresies 3:10:5], and probably St. Justin Martyr and the Shepherd of Hermas, refer to Mk 16:9-20.{10} In the third century, Priest St. Hippolytus the Martyr of Rome quotes from the verses in question.{11} In the fourth century, the long version of Mark is cited or alluded to by Hieromonk St. Aphrahat the Sage of Persia [Demonstration 1:17 of Faith], Bishop St. Cyril of Jerusalem (Doctor), Bishop St. Epiphanius of Salamis, Bishop St. Gregory of Nyssa, St. Caesarius of Nazianzus, Archbishop St. John I Chrysostom the Great of Constantinople (Doctor) [Homily 38:5 on First Corinthians], Bishop Macarius of Magnesia, Bishop St. Augustine the Great of Hippo (Doctor of Grace) [On Merit and the Forgiveness of Sins and the Baptism of Infants 3:3,6; On the Soul and Its Origin 2:17,23], Bishop St. Ambrose the Great of Milan (Doctor) [Concerning Repentance 1:18; Exposition of the Christian Faith 1:14:86; On the Holy Spirit 2:13:145], and many others.{11}
Notes & References
{1} MacRory, Joseph. "Gospel of Saint Mark." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 29 Jan. 2010 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09674b.htm>.
{2} Ibid. James E. Snapp, Jr., points out that the deteriorated quality of many cursive manuscripts falsifies the old Catholic Encyclopedia's outdated assertion.
{3} Ibid.
{4} Ibid.
{5} Ibid. Not all the Coptic manuscripts, as the old Catholic Encyclopedia says. James E. Snapp, Jr., points out that a 1972 Coptic manuscript falsifies the old Catholic Encyclopedia's outdated assertion.
{6} Ibid.
{7} Ibid.
{8} Ibid.
{9} Ibid.
{10} Ibid.
{11} Ibid.

Modernism Taught In A Catholic College

Soon I will talk about a class with a famous theologian that I took last year. Although I am very grateful for the charity and love this feminist writer showed toward me, I unfortunately cannot deny that she is tainted with modernism, indifferentism, panentheism, and syncretism, and that in one class she sanctioned the homosexual lifestyle when she said that justice demands that homosexual domestic partners deserve health benefits, etc.

Recently I got to one of my classes early, and saw a PowerPoint slide that the teacher of the previous class put up. On this slide it said that all religions are paths to the same summit, one of the most naive and soul-destroying statements one can make.

The following errors condemned by the wonderworking Pope St. Pius X of Rome (r. 8/5/1903-8/20/1914) were taught yesterday in one of my classes; I tried to combat them, but not valiantly enough, for which I apologize to the Lord:
27. The divinity of Jesus Christ is not proved from the Gospels. It is a dogma which the Christian conscience has derived from the notion of the Messias.
30. In all the evangelical texts the name "Son of God" is equivalent only to that of "Messias." It does not in the least way signify that Christ is the true and natural Son of God.
32. It is impossible to reconcile the natural sense of the Gospel texts with the sense taught by our theologians concerning the conscience and the infallible knowledge of Jesus Christ.
34. The critics can ascribe to Christ a knowledge without limits only on a hypothesis which cannot be historically conceived and which is repugnant to the moral sense. That hypothesis is that Christ as man possessed the knowledge of God and yet was unwilling to communicate the knowledge of a great many things to His disciples and posterity.

Saturday, January 23, 2010

Stationary Biking

On the Matrix Fitness bikes I've done 65 minute sessions in which I burned 791 calories, 830 calories, 830 calories, and 863 calories on Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, and today, respectively. I've been eating a lot better (cutting out soda, grilled cheeses, candy, and greatly reducing pizza consumption) and now eat smaller but nutritionally denser meals. I drink much more water, and also drink a lot of milk and try to eat a lot of chicken and eggs.

Update 1/28/2010: I did 65 minute sessions on Tuesday and yesterday in which I burned 902 calories and 920 calories, respectively. I thank God the Holy Spirit and St. Sebastian the Martyr for helping me out yesterday in particular.

Pope Gregory VI of Rome Bibliography

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*H. H. ANTON, "Die Synode von Sutri, ihr zeitgeschichtlicher Kontext und Nachklang," Zeitschrift der Savingny-Stifung für Rechtsgeschichte. Germanistische Abteilung (Wien 1997) 576–84.
*O. J. BLUM, "Gregory VI, Pope," New Catholic Encyclopedia (Detroit 2003) 6:489-491.
*GIOVANNI BATTISTA BORINO, "L'elezione e la deposizione di Gregorio VI," Archivio della Società Romana di Storia Patria (1916) 39:142–252,295–410.
*A. CLERVAL, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. A. VACANT (Paris 1921) 6.2:1791.
*Liber Pontificalis, ed. LOUIS DUCHESNE (Paris 1892) 2:270-271.
*D. FEYTMANS, "Grégoire VI était – il simoniaque?" Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire (1932) 11:130-137.
*JOHANNES HALLER, Das Papsttum: Idee und Wirklichkeit (Stuttgart 1951) 2:279-280,572-576.
*KLAUS-JÜRGEN HERMANN, Das Tuskulaner Papstum 1012–1046 (Stuttgart 1973) 154–60.
*--. "Gregory VI," The Papacy: An Encyclopedia, ed. PHILIPPE LEVILLAIN (New York 2002) 2:647-648.
*J. N. D. KELLY, Oxford Dictionary of Popes (Oxford 1986) 144-145.
*JOHANNES LAUDAGE, "Gregory VI., Päpst," Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche (Freiburg 1995) 4:1015-1016.
*REGINALD LANE POOLE, "Benedict IX and Gregory VI," Proceedings of the British Academy (London 1917–18) 8:199–235.
*FRANZ-JOSEF SCHMALE, "Die "Absetzung" Gregors VI. in Sutri und die synodale Tradition," Annuarium Historiae Conciliorum (1979) 11:58-59.
*FRANZ XAVER SEPPELT, Geschichte der Päpste von den Anfängen bis zur Mitte des 20. Jh. (Munich 1934) 2:406–409.
*JOHANNES MATTHIAS WATTERICH, Pontificum Romanorum qui fuerunt inde ab exeunte saeculo IX usque ad finem saeculi XIII vitae (Leipzig 1862) 1:72-73,75-80,712-716.
*O. WIDDING, "An Old Norse Version of a Pamphlet on the Papacy of Gregor VI," Analecta Romana Instituti Danici (Odense 1986) 15:51–65.
*HARALD ZIMMERMANN, Papstabsetzungen des Mittelalters (Graz, Vienna, Cologne 1968) 122-136.

Thursday, January 21, 2010

Philosophy of Aquinas Notes Day One

With Prof. Gyula Klima, Ph.D.

Gyula Klima = Joo-lah Klee-mah

Aquinas did commentaries on Aristotle – wrote commentaries on Aristotle’s Physics (On Generation & Corruption) – besides these works he never wrote major philosophical tracts per se, only opuscula (minor works)

Philosophical wisdom attainable by natural reason – leads up to divine wisdom – theological wisdom must be attained by the light of faith

Some articles of faith beyond human philosophical understanding – like the Holy Eucharist: substance of the body of Christ without the accidents of His body – substance is something that is not an inherent characteristic of something else – an accident is something that is inherent in something else – Aquinas always pressing for a rational explanation of something that cannot be proven by reason, but can be shown to be possible by reason (i.e., not violating the law of non-contradiction)

Collapse of entire philosophical tradition that really culminated in Aquinas' time and waned a couple of centuries later: Scholasticism – produced very unified but complex system of thought (all aspects of reality systemically reflected on) – shared set of principles and definitely a shared set of concepts (at most conservatively modified among different authors)

Hylomorphism = substances composed of matter and form

Wednesday, January 20, 2010

Antipope Sylvester III Bibliography

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Update 6/10/2010: I regard Sylvester III (r. 1/20/1045-2/10/1045; †1063) as an antipope rivaling the true pope, the notoriously wicked Benedict IX, because, as Dr. Warren H. Caroll says, "there is no power on earth which may depose a Pope. Any duly elected Pope remains therefore in office until he dies or resigns."{1}

Notes & References
{1} Carroll, Dr. Warren H. "Anti-Popes." Eternal World Television Network. 10 Jun. 2010 <http://www.ewtn.com/library/HOMELIBR/ANTIPOPE.TXT>.

Here is the bibliography:
*ÉMILE AMANN, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. A. Vacant (Paris 1941) 14.2:2083-2084.
*F. BAIX and J. LADIN, Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie ecclésiastiques, ed. A. BAUDRILLART et al. (Paris 1934) 8:99–101.
*GEOFFREY BARRACLOUGH, The Medieval Papacy (New York 1968) 71.
*Liber Pontificalis, ed. LOUIS DUCHESNE (Paris 1892) 270.
*J. N. D. KELLY, Oxford Dictionary of Popes (Oxford 1986) 144.
*HORACE KINDER MANN, The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages from 590 to 1304 (London 1910) 5:249,250,252-253,254,256,259-260,276.
*FRANZ XAVER SEPPELT, Geschichte der Päpste von den Anfängen bis zur Mitte des 20. Jh. (Munich 1934) 2:405–408.
*JAMES A. SHEPPARD, "Sylvester III, Pope," New Catholic Encyclopedia (Detroit 2003) 13:659.
*JOHANNES MATTHIAS WATTERICH, Pontificum Romanorum qui fuerunt inde ab exeunte saeculo IX usque ad finem saeculi XIII vitae (Leipzig 1862) 1:70,72-76,713-715.
*HARALD ZIMMERMANN, Papstabsetzungen des Mittelalters (Graz, Vienna, Cologne, 1968).

Papal Deposition Bibliography

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An expanded version of the previous post on the DTC bibliography, with New Catholic Encyclopedia style citations.

GIOVANNI BATTISTA BORINO, "L'elezione e la deposizione di Gregorio VI," Archivio della Società Romana di Storia Patria 39 (1916) 142–252, 295–410.
JOSEPH EPIPHANE-DARRAS, A General History of the Catholic Church (New York 1865) 2:594.
JOSEPH CARDINAL HERGENRÖTHER, Handbuch der allgemeinen Kirchengeschichte (Freiburg 1880) 2:65.
HORACE KINDER MANN, The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages from 590 to 1304 (London 1910) 4:273–281.
--. The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages from 590 to 1304 (London 1910) 5:260-262,266-268,287,289-290,298-299.
LUDWIG PASTOR, The History of the Popes From the Close of the Middle Ages (London 1891) 1:190-191.
--. The History of the Popes From the Close of the Middle Ages (London 1900) 4:419.
FRANZ-JOSEF SCHMALE, "Die 'Absetzung' Gregors VI. in Sutri und die synodale Tradition," Annarium Historiae Concilium 11 (1979) 55-103.
E. VACANDARD, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. A. VACANT et al. (Paris 1911) 4.1:520-521.
SALVATORE VACCA, Prima sedes a nemine iudicatur: genesi e sviluppo storico dell'assioma fino al Decreto di Graziano (Rome 1993).
HARALD ZIMMERMANN, "Die Deposition der Päpste Johannes XII., Leo VIII. und Benedikt V.," Mitteilungen des Instituts für österreichische Geschichtsforschung 68 (1960) 209–225.
--Papstabsetzungen des Mittelalters (Graz, Vienna, Cologne 1968).

Tuesday, January 19, 2010

Deposition & Degradation of Clerics: DTC Bibliography

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From the article "Déposition et dégradation des clercs" by E. VACANDARD, Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, ed. A. VACANT et al. (Paris 1911) 4.1:520-521:

Ballerini, De vi ac ratione primatus romanorum pontificum, dans Migne, Theologiæ cursus completus, t. III; Barbosa, Collectanea doctorum in V. lib. Decretalium, 3 in-fol., Lyon, 1656; Bellarmin, De Romano pontifice; De conciliis et Ecclesia; Binterim, Denkwürdigkeiten der christkatholischen Kirche, 7 in-8º, Mayence, 1825-1832; Bullarium magnum Romanum, 19 in-fol., Luxembourg, 1727 sq.; Bullarium Benedicti XIV 4 in-fol., Rome, 1754-1758; Van Espen, Jus ecclesiasticum universum, 4 in-fol., Louvain (Paris), 1641; Fagnan, Commentarius in V lib. Decretalium, 3 in-fol., Rome, 1661; Ferraris, Prompta bibliotheca canonica, 8 in-4º, Rome, 1885 sq.; Hardouin, Conciliorum collectio regia maxima, 12 in-fol., 1715; Hefele, Histoire des conciles, trad. Leclercq, 1907-1908, en cours de publication; Hinschius, System des katholischen Kirchenrechts, 6 in-8º, Berlin, 1879-1897; Decretales Pseudo-Isidorianæ, in-8º, Leipzig, 1863; Kober, Die Suspension der Kirchendiener, in-8º, Tubingue, 1862; Die Deposition und Degradation nach den Grundsätzen des kirchlichen Rechts, in-8º, Tubingue, 1867 (ouvrage classique); Lœning, Geschichte des deutschen Kirchenrechts, 2 in-8º, Strasbourg, 1878; Marca, De Concordia sacerdotii et imperii, in-4º, Paris, 1641; Massuet, Dissertationes præviæ in Irænei libros, P. G., t. VII, col. 281 sq.; du Perron, Réplique à la response du sérénissime roy de la Grande-Bretagne, Paris, 1620; Philipps, Kirchenrecht, 7 in-8º, Ratisbonne, 1845-1872; Real-Encyklopädie der christlichen Alterthümer, Fribourg-en-Brisgau, 1882, art. Deposition par Kober; Reiffenstuel, Jus canonicum, 5 in-fol., Ingolstadt, 1759; Santi, Prælectiones juris canonici juxta ordinem Decretalium, 5 in-8º, Ratisbonne, 1892; Schmalgrueber, Jus canonicum universum, Rome, 1844; Schœnemann, Pontificum romanorum epistolæ genuinæ; Schulte, Das Kirchenrecht, 2 in-8º, Stuttgart, 1860; Thomassin, Vetus et nova disciplina circa beneficia et beneficiarios, 3 in-fol., Venise, 1752; Turmel, Histoire de la théologie positive, 2 in-8º, Paris, 1904-1906; Histoire du dogme de la papauté, des origines à la fin du IVe siècle, in-12, Paris, 1908 ; Wasserschleben, Die Bussordnungen der abendländischen Kirche, in-8º, Halle, 1851 ; Wernz, Jus Decretalium ad usum prælectionem in scholis textus canonici sive juris Decretalium, 3 in-8º, Rome, 1897-1908.

This will be useful for studying the cases of Popes St. Silverius the Martyr (536-537), Stephen VI (896-897), John X (914-928), John XII (955-964), Benedict V (964-965), Benedict IX (1032-1045, 1047-1048), and Gregory VI (1045-1046).

Monday, January 18, 2010

Can a Legitimate Pope Be Deposed?

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Archbishop St. Avitus of Vienne: "How can the Head of the Universal Church be judged by his inferiors? If any one of the other pontiffs stray from the right way, he can be reformed; but when the Pope is arraigned for judgment, it is no longer a single bishop, it is the whole episcopate, which is impugned."{1}
Bishops of France (Rome; 800), on the charges against Pope St. Leo III of Rome that they had been called to examine: "We dare not sit in judgment upon the Apostolic See, the chief of all the churches of God. It belongs to that See and to its Pontiff to judge us all, being himself subject to no other judgment, according to the traditions of ancient discipline."{2}
Eighth Ecumenical Council (Constantinople IV; 869-870), Canon 21: "If anyone, strong in the secular power, seek to expel the Sovereign Pontiff from his See, let him be anathema!"{3}

Joseph Cardinal Hergenröther: "No right existed by which the Pope [if really legitimate, see p. 120, note †, supra] could be deposed; if Gregory broke his word, he sinned, but he did not forfeit his Pontificate. If there was no right to depose the Pope there was no right to appoint a new one."{4}
Dr. Ludwig von Pastor: "Gallicanism, too, had prepared the ground for the doctrine of the sovereignty of the people, since according to the Gallicans, authority to govern is really vested in the universal Church, the Pope and the Bishops only exercising power in its name, so that a General Council may call the Pope to account and even depose him."{5}
Dr. Warren H. Carroll: "there is no power on earth which may depose a Pope. Any duly elected Pope remains therefore in office until he dies or resigns."{6}

Anglican scholar J.N.D. Kelly: "The validity of John's deposition, which violated the ancient principle that the holy see can be judged by no earthly power, has been called in question."{7}
Notes & References
{1} Qtd. in Darras II:594.
{2} Qtd. in ibid.
{3} Qtd. in ibid.
{4} Hergenröther II:65 qtd. in Pastor I:190-191 n. †.
{5} Pastor XXIV:419.
{6} Carroll, Dr. Warren H. "Anti-Popes." Eternal World Television Network. 10 Jun. 2010 <http://www.ewtn.com/library/HOMELIBR/ANTIPOPE.TXT>.
{7} "John XII." The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. J. N. D. Kelly. with new material by Michael Walsh. Oxford University Press, 2006. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Fordham University. 6 December 2009 <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t99.e145>.

Works Cited
*Darras, Joseph-Epiphane. A General History of the Catholic Church, vol. II. New York: P. O'Shea, 1865. <http://www.archive.org/details/ageneralhistory02darruoft>.
*Hergenröther, Joseph Cardinal. Handbuch der allgemeinen Kirchengeschichte, vol. II. Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder, 1880. <http://www.archive.org/details/a587304702herguoft>.
*Kelly, John Norman Davidson. The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, with new material by Michael Walsh. Oxford University Press, 2006.
*Pastor, Dr. Ludwig. The History of the Popes From the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. I. London: John Hodges, 1891. <http://www.archive.org/details/historyofpopesfr01past>.
*--. The History of the Popes From the Close of the Middle Ages, vol. IV. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, & Co., Ltd., 1900. <http://www.archive.org/details/historyofpopesfr04past>.

Sunday, January 17, 2010

Pope Boniface VI of Rome

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The 111th successor of the glorious martyr St. Peter, the Prince of the Apostles, was Pope Boniface VI of Rome. Many people claim that the 898 Roman Council under Pope John IX (898-900) annulled the election of Pope Boniface VI, the Roman-born{1} son of the bishop Adrian,{2} because he was not canonically restored after being degraded from the subdiaconate and from the priesthood for gross immorality.{3} This would make him an antipope, but this is doubtful for six reasons: (1) if this was the case, one would expect the Vatican to omit him from the list of popes.{4} (2) On the contrary, Pope Boniface VI was recognized as legitimate pope by his contemporaries{5} and (3) his successors{6} and (4) the Boniface of Canon 3 is not called pope or associated with the Holy See by any title or description.{7} (5) If Pope Boniface VI, who ruled from April 11, 896 until his death from gout{8} in Rome{9} on April 26, 896,{10} was an antipope, Frodoard of Rheims would not have called him a saint.{11} (6) Pope Boniface VI was interred in the portico of the popes in the Vatican,{12} where a fragment of the epitaph on his sepulchral monument read,
"Atria magnificis (quae) sunt (jam) plena sepulchri(s)
Sedis apostolicæ Bonifati presulis almi
(Suscipiunt corpus, etc.)."
{13}
Notes & References
{1} Ennis, A. J. "Boniface VI, Pope." New Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 2, 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. 500. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale. Fordham University Libraries. 19 Dec. 2009.
{2} Ibid.
{3} Mann, Rev. Fr. Horace Kinder. The Lives of the Popes In The Early Middle Ages, vol. IV. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, & Co., Ltd., 1910. <http://www.archive.org/details/livesofpopesinea04mannuoft>. p. 74.
{4} It's a very straightforward case (i.e, there was no rival claimant to the papacy like in the cases of Benedict V & Leo VIII and Benedict IX & Sylvester III). Cf. "Antipope Leo VIII?" The Banana Republican. 6 Dec. 2009. 17 Jan. 2010 <http://thebananarepublican.blogspot.com/2009/12/antipope-leo-viii.html>.
{5} Mann, op. cit, 75.
{6} Ibid.
{7} Ibid., 74.
{8} Ibid.
{9} Ennis, loc. cit.
{10} Ibid.
{11} Mann, loc. cit.
{12} Ennis, loc. cit.
{13} According to the great 19th-century archaeologist Giovanni Battista de Rossi. Mann, loc. cit.

Saturday, January 16, 2010

Pope St. Gaius of Rome

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Pope St. Gaius of Rome, the 27th successor of the glorious martyr St. Peter, the Prince of the Apostles, ruled from December 17, 283 until his death from natural causes{1} on April 22, 296.{2} In 257 he was imprisoned with future popes Sts. Sixtus II the Martyr (257-258) and Dionysius of Rome (260-268).{3} He was laid to rest in the cemetery of St. Callistus apart from the old papal crypt,{4} and his Greek epitaph reads "Burial of Gaius, bishop … April 22."{5} Pope Urban VIII of Rome (1623-1644) transferred his holy relics to the Church of St. Gaius of 1631.{6} The feast day of St. Gaius is April 22.{7}

O faithful shepherd Pope St. Gaius of Rome, entreat the merciful God to save our souls. Amen. Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner.
Notes & References
{1} Pope St. Gaius is listed under the fourth century "Depositio Episcoporum" rather than under the "Depositio Martyrum," and he doesn't appear in any martyrology. Weltin, E. G. "Gaius (Caius), Pope, St." New Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. 50. 15 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale. Fordham University Libraries. 19 Dec. 2009.
{2} "Gaius." The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. J. N. D. Kelly. with new material by Michael Walsh. Oxford University Press, 2006. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Fordham University. 30 December 2009 <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t99.e30>.
{3} According to Anastasius the Librarian. Weltin, loc. cit.
{4} According to the Depositio Episcoporum: "X kl maii Caii in Callisti." Chapman, John. "Caius and Soter, Saints and Popes." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 3. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 19 Dec. 2009 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03144c.htm>.
{5} According to the great archaeologist Giovanni Battista de Rossi. Weltin, loc. cit.
{6} Ibid.
{7} Ibid.

Friday, January 15, 2010

Pope St. Eutychian of Rome

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Pope St. Eutychian of Rome, the 26th successor of the glorious martyr St. Peter, the Prince of the Apostles, was born in Tuscany{1} to Marinus,{2} and ruled from January 7, 275 until his death from natural causes{3} on December 7, 283.{4} Pope St. Eutychian was the last pope interred in the papal crypt in the Catacomb of St. Callistus,{5} where a fragment of his epitaph reads "EUTYCHIANOS EPIS(KOPOS)."{6} His feast day is December 8.{7}

O wise shepherd and Vicar of Christ, Pope St. Eutychian of Rome, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death, so that we may join you in Heavenly bliss after a long and fruitful life. Amen. Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner.
Notes & References
{1} According to the Liber Pontificalis. Weltin, E. G. "Eutychian, Pope, St." New Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. 461. 15 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale. Fordham University Libraries. 19 Dec. 2009.
{2} According to the Liber Pontificalis. Ibid.
{3} He listed in the fourth century Roman Calendar under "Depositio Episcoporum," rather than in the list of martyrs. Kirsch, Johann Peter. "Pope St. Eutychianus." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 10 Dec. 2009 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05638a.htm>.
{4} Weltin, loc. cit.
{5} "Eutychian, St." The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. J. N. D. Kelly. with new material by Michael Walsh. Oxford University Press, 2006. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Fordham University. 15 January 2010 <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t99.e29>.
{6} Kirsch, loc. cit.
{7} See the Roman Martyrology for December 8.

Thursday, January 14, 2010

Pope St. Pius I of Rome

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The ninth successor of the glorious martyr St. Peter, the Prince of the Apostles, was Pope St. Pius I of Rome, born in Aquileia{1} to Rufinus of Aquileia.{2} St. Pius I, who was the brother of the holy ex-slave Hermas, author of The Shepherd,{3} ruled from 142{4} until his death from natural causes{5} in 155.{6} The holy pontiff, who knew the Church Father St. Justin Martyr{7} and presided over a council of priests that excommunicated the heretic Marcion in July 144,{8} was buried at an unknown location.{9} His feast day is July 11.{10}

O great and righteous pope St. Pius I of Rome, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death, that we might follow your virtuous example and die in the odor of sanctity. Amen. Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner.
Notes & References
{1} a. According to the Liber Pontificalis. Kirsch, Johann Peter. "Pope St. Pius I." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 12. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 14 Jan. 2010 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12126b.htm>.
b. Kirsch, however, states this probably a conjecture based on the author's knowledge of Rufinus of Aquileia († end of 4th century). Ibid.
{2} a. According to the Liber Pontificalis. Ibid.
b. Kirsch, however, states this probably a conjecture based on the author's knowledge of Rufinus of Aquileia († end of 4th century). Ibid.
{3} According to the ancient Muratorian Canon. "Pius I, St." The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. J. N. D. Kelly. with new material by Michael Walsh. Oxford University Press, 2006. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Fordham University. 9 January 2010 <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t99.e10>.
{4} According to the Church Doctor Hieromonk St. Jerome the Great of Strido (9/30 in the West; 6/15 in the East) and the Church historian Eusebius of Caesarea. Weltin, E. G. "Pius I, Pope, St." New Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 11. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. 368. 15 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale. Fordham University Libraries. 9 Jan. 2010.
{5} No one called him a martyr until Ado of Vienne in 858. Kelly, loc. cit.
{6} Ibid.
{7} Ibid.
{8} Ibid.
{9} Modern excavations disprove the myth that he was buried next to St. Peter in the Vatican. Weltin, loc. cit.
{10} Ibid.

Wednesday, January 13, 2010

Pope St. Telesphorus the Martyr of Rome

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The Greek{1} Pope St. Telesphorus the Martyr of Rome, the seventh successor to St. Peter, the Prince of the Apostles, ruled from 125 to 136.{2} All we know of his pontificate is that he celebrated Easter on Sunday but remained in communion with those observing different customs,{3} and that he was gloriously martyred under the Roman Emperor Hadrian.{4} The feast day of St. Telesphorus, whose burial place is unknown,{5} is January 5.{6}

O glorious martyr Pope St. Telesphorus of Rome, entreat the merciful God to grant us such grace that we, like you, can courageously bear witness to His wondrous deeds in our everyday lives, even unto death, and that we one day join you in the Kingdom of Heaven and see God face to face. Amen. Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner.
Notes & References
{1} His name confirms the statement of the Liber Pontificalis that he was Greek. "Telesphorus, St." The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. J. N. D. Kelly. with new material by Michael Walsh. Oxford University Press, 2006. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Fordham University. 11 January 2010 <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t99.e8>.
{2} Kirsch, Johann Peter. "Pope St. Telesphorus." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 14. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 13 Jan. 2010 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14477b.htm>.
{3} According to a fragment of a letter from the great Church Father Bishop St. Irenaeus of Lyons to Pope St. Victor I of Rome on celebrating Easter, in Eusebius of Caesarea's Church History 5:24:14. Ibid.
{4} According to St. Irenaeus (Against Heresies 3:3:3). Ibid.
{5} Modern excavations disprove the myth that he was buried in the Vatican. Weltin, E. G. "Telesphorus, Pope, St." New Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 13. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. 792. 15 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale. Fordham University Libraries. 9 Jan. 2010.
{6} Ibid.

Pope Valentine of Rome

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The 99th successor of St. Peter, the Prince of the Apostles, was Pope Valentine of Rome, who was born in Rome{1} to Leontius of the Via Lata.{2} His upper-class{3} parents raised him devoutly,{4} and Valentine started serving the Church at a young age.{5} Pope St. Paschal I, noting his sanctity,{6} ordained him and took him into the papal palace,{7} and made Valentine archdeacon of the Roman diaconate.{8} The clergy, nobility, and general populace of Rome unanimously elected him pope at the Lateran{9} and, after finding him praying inside the church of St. Mary Major,{10} consecrated him bishop and enthroned him as pope at St. Peter's.{11} While pope, Valentine was renowned for his liberality, clemency, and piety.{12} Nothing else is known of what he did as pope.{13} After reigning from August 827 to September 827,{14} he reposed in the Lord at Rome{15} and was buried in the Vatican.{16}

O righteous pontiff Valentine of Rome, from your youth God raised you up to be His faithful servant. Pray for us, now and at the hour of our death, that we may lead a graceful life like you did and one day meet you in the choir of the saints. Amen. Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner.
Notes & References
{1} Mulholland, M. A. "Valentine, Pope." New Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 14. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. p. 371. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale. Fordham University Libraries. 3 Dec. 2009.
{2} "Valentine." The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. J. N. D. Kelly. with new material by Michael Walsh. Oxford University Press, 2006. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Fordham University. 30 December 2009 <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t99.e112>
{3} Ibid.
{4} Mulholland, loc. cit.
{5} Kirsch, Johann Peter. "Pope Valentine." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 15. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 9 Dec. 2009 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15254b.htm>.
{6} Ibid.
{7} Ibid.
{8} Ibid.
{9} Ibid.
{10} Mulholland, loc. cit.
{11} Ibid.
{12} Ibid.
{13} Kelly, loc. cit.
{14} Mulholland, loc. cit.
{15} Ibid.
{16} Ibid.

Pope Romanus of Rome

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The 113th successor of St. Peter, the Prince of the Apostles, was Pope Romanus of Rome, born to Constantine{1} in Gallese near Cività Castellana.{2} The holy{3} pro-Formosan{4} Romanus, previously a cardinal priest of San Pietro in Vincoli,{5} reigned from August 897 to November 897,{6} when he reposed in the Lord.{7} He gave the pallium to Vitalis, the patriarch of Grado, and confirmed the bishops of Elne, Rousillon and Gerona, Spain in possession of their sees.{8}
Notes & References
{1} Mann, Horace. "Pope Romanus." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 13. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 9 Dec. 2009 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13163b.htm>.
{2} Ibid.
{3} According to three verses of the excellent contemporary historian Frodoard. Ibid.
{4} "Romanus." The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. J. N. D. Kelly. with new material by Michael Walsh. Oxford University Press, 2006. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Fordham University. 30 December 2009 <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t99.e128>.
{5} Ibid.
{6} Ibid.
{7} Jaffé I:304. The isolated report of his deposition probably confuses him with the Pope Stephen VI, who was murdered in prison. See p. 86 of Mann, Rev. Horace Kinder. The Lives of the Popes In The Early Middle Ages, vol. IV. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, & Co., Ltd., 1910. 13 Jan. 2009 <http://www.archive.org/details/livesofpopesinea04mannuoft>.
{8} Kelly, loc. cit.

Pope St. Anacletus the Martyr of Rome

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The second successor of the glorious martyr St. Peter, the Prince of Apostles, was the probably Greek{1} Pope St. Anacletus of Rome (more properly Anencletus),{2} a possible former slave{3} who reigned from 76 to 88.{4} We only know that St. Anacletus, whose feast day is April 26,{5} ordained several priests{6} and died a martyr.{7} His place of burial is unknown.{8}

O holy martyr and wonderful shepherd Pope St. Anacletus of Rome, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death, that we may imitate you in virtue and join you in the Kingdom of Heaven. Amen. Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner.
Notes & References
{1} Based on his name. "Anacletus, St." The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. J. N. D. Kelly. with new material by Michael Walsh. Oxford University Press, 2006. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Fordham University. 11 January 2010 <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t99.e3>.
{2} Weltin, E. G. "Anacletus (Cletus), St. Pope." New Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. 370. 15 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale. Fordham University Libraries. 19 Dec. 2009.
{3} Ibid.
{4} Since St. Peter died in 64 rather than 67, the dates from Kelly, loc. cit are to be adjusted down by three years.
{5} Roman Martyrology for April 26.
{6} Campbell, Thomas. "Pope St. Anacletus." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 8 Dec. 2009 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01446a.htm>.
{7} Ibid.
{8} Weltin, loc. cit.

Tuesday, January 12, 2010

Pope St. Lucius I of Rome

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The 21st successor of St. Peter, the Prince of the Apostles, was Pope St. Lucius I of Rome, a confessor of the faith{1} who, after being exiled by Emperor Gallus to Civitavecchia,{2} miraculously{3} returned to Rome under Emperor Valerian{4} and reigned from June 25, 253 to March 5, 254.{5} Nothing is known of what he did as pope other than that he continued the policy of his predecessor, St. Cornelius the Martyr (251-253), by readmitting the lapsi of the Decian persecution into the Church after they did appropriate penance.{6} After the Roman{7} St. Lucius I died of natural causes,{8} he was interred in the cemetery of Callistus, where part of his epitaph was salvaged.{9} The feast day of Pope St. Lucius I is March 4.{10} His holy relics were either transferred by Pope St. Paul I (757-767) to the Church of San Silvestro in Capite or transferred by Pope St. Paschal I (817-824) to the Basilica of St. Praxedes.{11}

O laudable confessor Pope St. Lucius I of Rome, entreat the merciful God to save our souls, and pray for us now and at the hour of our death. Amen. Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner.
Notes & References
{1} According to the Church Father Bishop St. Cyprian the Martyr of Carthage (Epistle 61), whose feast day is September 16. Weltin, E. G. "Lucius I, Pope, St." New Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 8. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. 846. 15 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale. Fordham University Libraries. 9 Jan. 2010.
{2} Ibid.
{3} According to the Felician Catalogue. Kirsch, Johann Peter. "Pope St. Lucius I." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 9. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 8 Dec. 2009 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09411a.htm>.
{4} According to Bishop St. Cyprian the Martyr of Carthage (Epistle 61). Weltin, loc. cit.
{5} "Lucius I, St." The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. J. N. D. Kelly. with new material by Michael Walsh. Oxford University Press, 2006. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Fordham University. 9 January 2010 <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t99.e24>.
{6} Weltin, loc. cit.
{7} According to the Liber Pontificalis, which also, based on unknown sources, calls him the son of Porphyrius. Kirsch, loc. cit.
{8} The Romans did not honor St. Lucius I as a martyr after he reposed in the Lord, and the "Chronograph of 354" has him under "Depositio episcoporum" rather than "Depositio martyrum." Ibid.
{9} Weltin, loc. cit.
{10} Ibid.
{11} Kirsch, loc. cit.

Sunday, January 10, 2010

Pope St. Evaristus of Rome

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The fourth successor to the glorious martyr St. Peter, Prince of the Apostles, was Pope St. Evaristus of Rome, who governed the universal Church from 97 to 105.{2} He was a Greek{2} who may have been from Antioch{3} and whose father may have been a Bethlehem Jew.{4} His pontifical activities{5} and place of burial are unknown.{6} There is no proof that St. Evaristus, whose feast day is on October 27,{7} was martyred.{8}

Righteous St. Evaristus, who was found worthy to shepherd the faithful from the chair of St. Peter, pray for us now and at the hour of our death, that we might be worthy to join you in the Kingdom of Heaven. Amen. Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner.
Notes & References
{1} "Chronological List of Popes." The Papacy: An Encyclopedia, 1st. ed. Ed. Philippe Levillian, John W. O'Malley. Routledge, 2002. Religion Online. Taylor & Francis. 26 Jun. 2010 <http://www.routledgereligiononline.com:80/Book.aspx?id=w064_w064c1>.
{2} This statement of the sixth-century edition of the Liber Pontificalis agrees with the very name of the holy pope. "Evaristus, St." The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. J. N. D. Kelly. with new material by Michael Walsh. Oxford University Press, 2006. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Fordham University. 10 Jan. 2010 <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t99.e5>.
{3} a. According to the sixth-century edition of the Liber Pontificalis. Weltin, E. G. "Evaristus, Pope, St." New Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. 482. 15 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale. Fordham University Libraries. 8 Dec. 2009.
b. J. N. D. Kelly, however, rejects this detail as "historically valueless." Kelly, loc. cit.
{4} a. According to the sixth-century edition of the Liber Pontificalis. Weltin, loc. cit.
b. J. N. D. Kelly, however, rejects this detail as "historically valueless." Kelly, loc. cit.
{5} "Evaristus, St." The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. Ibid.
{6} Modern excavations have disproved the myth that St. Evaristus was buried next to St. Peter. Weltin, loc. cit.
{7} Roman Martyrology for October 27.
{8} Kirsch, Johann Peter. "Pope St. Evaristus." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 5. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1909. 8 Dec. 2009 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05646a.htm>.

Saturday, January 09, 2010

Pope St. Anterus of Rome

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Pope St. Anterus of Rome, the 18th successor of St. Peter the Prince of the Apostles, reigned from November 21, 235 to January 3, 236.{1} He was a Greek{2} and the son of Romulus.{3} Nothing of his acts is known except that he might have liked to collect the acts of martyrs.{4} He was not a martyr himself (his name is not found in lists of martyrs),{5} but rather he died of natural causes.{6} St. Anterus, whose feast day is January 3, was the first pontiff to be interred in the bishops' crypt in the cemetery of St. Callistus in Rome.{7}

Pope St. Anterus of Rome, righteous shepherd, pray for us sinners now and at the hour of our death. Amen. Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner.
Notes & References
{1} Shahan, Thomas. "Pope St. Anterus." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 8 Dec. 2009 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01553a.htm>.
{2} The Liber Pontificalis is trustworthy here because Anterus is a Greek name and the saintly pope's epitaph, discovered by Giovanni Battista de Rossi in 1854, has a Greek epitaph. Ibid.
{3} According to the Liber Pontificalis. Weltin, E. G. "Anterus, Pope, St." New Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. 501. 15 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale. Fordham University Libraries. 19 Dec. 2009.
{4} Ibid.
{5} Ibid.
{6} The Liberian catalogue states that the holy pope "fell asleep." Ibid.
{7} Ibid.

Pope St. Alexander I of Rome

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Pope St. Alexander I, a Roman{1} and the son of Alexander,{2} was elected the fifth successor of St. Peter the Prince of Apostles in 106.{3} There is no authentic information about what he did during his pontificate.{4} The absence of any testimony to his martyrdom before the end of the fifth century indicates that he was not a martyr,{5} and the martyr St. Alexander is a different saint from a later century.{6} St. Alexander I died, apparently of natural causes, in 115.{7} The newest (2004) Roman Martyrology does not commemorate him on May 3, but the Roman Canon of the Mass still commemorates him.{8} His holy relics were transferred to Freising in Bavaria in 834.{9}

O holy pontiff St. Alexander I, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death. Amen. Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner.
Notes & References
{1} According to the Liber Pontificalis. "Alexander I, St." The Oxford Dictionary of Popes. J. N. D. Kelly. with new material by Michael Walsh. Oxford University Press, 2006. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Fordham University. 9 December 2009 <http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?subview=Main&entry=t99.e6>.
{2} According to the Liber Pontificalis. Ibid.
{3} Duchesne gives the year 106. Shahan, Thomas. "Pope St. Alexander I." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907. 8 Dec. 2009 <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01285c.htm>.
{4} a. Weltin, E. G. "Alexander I, Pope, St." New Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 1. 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003. 253. 15 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale. Fordham University Libraries. 19 Dec. 2009.
b. "Alexander I, St." Kelly, loc. cit.
{5} Shahan, loc. cit.
{6} Weltin, loc. cit.
{7} Duchesne gives the year 115. Shahan, loc. cit.
{8} Thanks to my reader Basil for this correction! The 4th-century martyr St. Alexander is the St. Alexander commemorated in the new Roman Martyrology on May 3; he lived long after Pope St. Alexander I. The third edition of the Roman Missal says,
To us, also, your sinful servants, who hope in your abundant mercies, graciously grant some share and fellowship with your holy Apostles and Martyrs: with John the Baptist, Stephen, Matthias, Barnabas, [Ignatius, Alexander, Marcellinus, Peter, Felicity, Perpetua, Agatha, Lucy, Agnes, Cecilia, Anastasia] and all your Saints: admit us, we beg you, into their company, not weighing our merits, but granting us your pardon, through Christ our Lord.
{9} Shahan, loc. cit.

Thursday, January 07, 2010

Victoria Osteen: "It Starts With Us"

Victoria Osteen is wrong to say, "It starts with us."{1} Her at least semi-Pelagian teaching is opposed to the inerrant word of God and the interpretation holy mother Church has given it:
Lamentations 5:21: Convert us, O Lord, to You, and we shall be converted: renew our days, as from the beginning.
ἐπίστρεψον ἡμᾶς κύριε πρὸς σέ καὶ ἐπιστραφησόμεθα καὶ ἀνακαίνισον ἡμέρας ἡμῶν καθὼς ἔμπροσθεν.

Ephesians 2:8: For by grace you are saved through faith: and that not of yourselves, for it is the gift of God.
τῇ γὰρ χάριτί ἐστε σεσῳσμένοι διὰ πίστεως: καὶ τοῦτο οὐκ ἐξ ὑμῶν, θεοῦ τὸ δῶρον.

Second Council of Orange (Denzinger 178): Canon 5 of the Second Council of Orange says,
If anyone says, that just as the increase [of faith] so also the beginning of faith and the very desire of credulity, by which we believe in Him who justifies the impious, and (by which) we arrive at the regeneration of holy baptism (is) not through the gift of grace, that is, through the inspiration of the Holy Spirit reforming our will from infidelity to faith, from impiety to piety, but is naturally in us, he is proved (to be) antagonistic to the doctrine of the Apostles, since blessed Paul says: "We trust, that he who begins a good work in us, will perfect it unto the day of Christ Jesus" [Phil. 1:6]; and the following: "It was given to you for Christ not only that you may believe in Him, but also, that you may suffer for Him" [Phil. 1:29]; and: "By grace you are made safe through faith, and this not of yourselves; for it is the gift of God" [Eph. 2:8]. For those who say that faith, by which we believe in God, is natural, declare that all those who are alien to the Church of Christ are in a measure faithful [cf. St. Augustine].
Ecumenical Council of Trent (Denzinger 797):
It [the Synod] furthermore declares that in adults the beginning of that justification must be derived from the predisposing grace [can. 3] of God through Jesus Christ, that is, from his vocation, whereby without any existing merits on their part they are called, so that they who by sin were turned away from God, through His stimulating and assisting grace are disposed to convert themselves to their own justification, by freely assenting to and cooperating with the same grace [can. 4 and 5], in such wise that, while God touches the heart of man through the illumination of the Holy Spirit, man himself receiving that inspiration does not do nothing at all inasmuch as he can indeed reject it, nor on the other hand can he [can. 3] of his own free will without the grace of God move himself to justice before Him. Hence, when it is said in the Sacred Writings: "Turn ye to Me, and I will turn to you" [Zach. 1:3], we are reminded of our liberty; when we reply: "Convert us, O Lord, to Thee, and we shall be converted" [Lam. 5:21], we confess that we are anticipated by the grace of God.
Notes & References
{1} http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eTwGybu6pEs.

Wednesday, January 06, 2010

The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son

Mirror link

1. In the ontological Trinity, the person of the Father, through and with the person of the Son, eternally spirates the person of the Holy Spirit in one spiration as from one principle (cf. Denzinger 460, 463, 691, 1084).

2. That the Son sends the Holy Spirit [John 15:26] means He has some authority over Him. Since it is not authority of dominion (e.g., King St. Vladimir I the Great rules over Russia), seniority (e.g., a general is ranked higher than a colonel), or superiority (e.g., John is holier than Jack), it must be authority of origin, whereby the Holy Spirit has His existence from the Son and not only the Father.{1}

3. The early Fathers (e.g., Sts. Hilary of Poitiers, Athanasius the Great of Alexandria, Basil the Great of Caesarea, Epiphanius of Salamis, and Augustine the Great of Hippo) interpret John 16:14 ("He shall receive of Mine") to mean that the Holy Spirit receives His being from the Son ("He shall receive from Me"),{2} not that the Holy Spirit receives His being from the Father alone ("He shall receive from Him that is Mine"), as St. Photius taught [Mystagogy of the Holy Spirit 22 in P.G. 102:301B].

4. The Son is the Image of the Father, from Whom He has His being [Col 1:15; Heb 1:3]. The Holy Spirit cannot be the image of the Son, as the Greek Patristic tradition teaches,{3} unless He has His being from the Son, and not only the Father.

5. The hypostases of the Son and the Holy Spirit would not be distinguished from each other if there was not a relation of origin between Them.{4} The order of names tells us that it must thus be the case that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Son.

6. The incommunicable personal properties are generation (paternity), filiation (sonship), and passive spiration (procession).{5} It is not proper to the Father or the Son to spirate, because active spiration is not relatively opposed to paternity or filiation [ST I, q. 28, art. 3, ad 1], but it is proper to the Holy Spirit to be spirated. In this way the difficulty of all real divine properties being common to all three hypostases or proper to one hypostasis is circumvented.

7. The monarchy of the Father means that He alone has His being from no other hypostasis. That the Son also spirates the Holy Spirit does not make Him a second source of divinity, because He is begotten from the Father and has it from the Father that He also spirates the Holy Spirit.{6} The Greek Fathers use "cause" in a very narrow, determinate, and specific sense: the unbegotten source from Whom the other two persons proceed.{7} Catholics use principle in an indeterminate sense when they say that the Father and the Son are the one "principle" of the Holy Spirit [ST I, q. 36, art. 4, ad 4]. "Principle" is a substantive name with a form and an accompanying suppositum: the Father and the Son must be one "principle" of the Holy Spirit because even though they are two supposita spirating, they are one form, God [ibid., ad 7].

8. The Holy Spirit is called the Spirit of the Father and belongs to Him because the Father spirates Him. If the Son did not spirate the Holy Spirit, the Holy Spirit could not be the Spirit of the Son.

9. Several Eastern Fathers teach expressly that the Son also spirates the Holy Spirit in the immanent or ontological Trinity.{8} This teaching is not explicit in all the Eastern Fathers. However, all the Latin Fathers, from the Doctor Bishop St. Hilary of Poitiers onward, explicitly teach Filioque in the sense defined above.{9} To maintain that Filioque is false is to say that the God-bearing Eastern and Western Fathers, who were inspired by the one Spirit of Truth when communicating the traditions of the Church, taught mutually exclusive doctrines on the procession of the Holy Spirit.

Notes & References
{1} Aquinas, St. Thomas (Angelic Doctor). "That the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Son." Summa Contra Gentiles: On God and His Creatures. Trans. Joseph Rickaby, S.J., M.A. London: Burnes and Oates, 1905. 6 Jan. 2010 <http://www2.nd.edu/Departments/Maritain/etext/gc4_24.htm>.
{2} "Filioque: Fathers, Popes, & Councils." Catholic Patristics. 4 Aug. 2009. 6 Jan. 2010 <http://catholicpatristics.blogspot.com/2009/08/filioque.html>.
{3} Creed of St. Gregory the Wonderworker of Neocaesarea, Doctor St. Athanasius the Great [To Serapion 1:19,20, 21, 24 and 2:1, 4], Doctor St. Gregory the Theologian of Nazianzus [Oration 31:31-32], Doctor of the Incarnation St. Cyril of Alexandria [Thesaurus 33], and Doctor St. John of Damascus [An Exact Exposition of the Orthodox Faith 1:13].
{4} St. Gregory of Nyssa [To Ablabius on Not Three Gods], Doctor St. Gregory the Theologian of Nazianzus [Oration 31:9], Doctor St. John of Damascus [An Exact Exposition of the Orthodox Faith 1:8].
{5} New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd ed., s.v. "Divine Personal Properties."
{6} Jugie, Martin, A.A. De processione spiritus sancti ex fontibus revelationis et secundum orientales dissidentes (Rome: Istituto Grafico Tiberino, 1936), 293-294.
{7} "The Cappadocian Fathers and Filioque." The Banana Republican. 6 Jan. 2010 <http://thebananarepublican.blogspot.com/2010/01/cappadocian-fathers-and-filioque.html>.
{8} "Filioque: Fathers, Popes, & Councils." Catholic Patristics. 4 Aug. 2009. 6 Jan. 2010 <http://catholicpatristics.blogspot.com/2009/08/filioque.html>.
{9} New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd ed., s.v. "Filioque."