Monday, August 23, 2010

Maronites Were Not Always Catholic

An under-construction revised version of a previous post on historical Maronite Monothelitism.

Many Catholic, Nestorian, and Jacobite sources testify that the Maronites were formerly Monothelites and thus not always in communion with the Holy See. Eminent Maronite scholars admit that the Maronites were at least guilty of material Monothelitism for a long time, and Maronite doctrinal, ritual, and historical books prove that the Maronites were, for many centuries, guilty of the heresy of Monothelitism, i.e., that Christ has but one will as the result of the union of His divine will and His human will. Moosa citations are from the Syriac Orthodox historian Matti Moosa (†2014), The Maronites in History. Piscataway: Gorgias Press, 2005. In NCE IX:195, E. el-Hayek and Chorbishop Msgr. Seely Beggiani say, "The oldest Maronite documents prove that, in spite of a material Monothelitism, the Maronites believed that in Christ, ontologically speaking, there are two wills (see Dib, Histoire …, 30)." I suppose the authors mean that the Maronites imperfectly expressed the Catholic teaching of St. Maximus the Confessor of Constantinople (†662): "duo thelemata, mia gnome," meaning "two wills willing, one will willed" (see Dom John Chapman, O.S.B.)

Catholic Sources
*Patriarch St. Germanus I of Constantinople (r. 715-730; †733) in PG 98:82 (Moosa 208 n. 55): "There are some heretics who, rejecting the Fifth and Sixth Councils, nevertheless contend against the Jacobites. The latter treat them as men without sense, because, while accepting the Fourth Council, they try to reject the next two. Such are the Maronites, whose monastery is situated in the very mountains of Syria."
*Hieromonk St. John of Damascus (Church Doctor; †749) in "De Recta Sententia" in PG 94:1430-1431 and "Letter to Archimandrite Jordanus" in PG 95:31-32,34 (Moosa 209 nn. 56-58).
*Melkite Bishop Theodore of Harran (†820), qtd. in E. Ajam, "Le Monothélism Des Maronites" 91-95 (Moosa 165 n. 89).
*Archbishop William of Tyre (†1186) in A History of the Deeds Done Beyond the Seas 11, trans. A. Babcock & A. C. Krey, New York 1943, 458-459 (Moosa 218 n. 2).
*Pope Innocent III of Rome (1198-1216), Letter of 2/1/1216 in Tobias Anaissi, Bullarium Maronitarum 2-6 (Moosa 221 n. 12).
*Pope Eugene IV of Rome (1431-1447) in a 1445 Bull mentioning the "Maronite bishop Elias" in Anaissi, Bullarium Maronitarum 14-16 (Moosa 231 n. 53).
*Horace Justinian, who compiled the acts of the Ecumenical Council of Florence (Moosa 231 n. 55).
*Pope Pius II of Rome (1458-1464), 1461 Letter to Mehmed II the Conqueror (Jérôme Labourt).
*Pope Gregory XIII of Rome (1572-1585) in Anaissi, Bullarium Maronitarum 70-72 (Moosa 243 nn. 43-44) orders the Maronites to cease chanting, in the Trisagion, "phrases far from the truth and the faith held by the Church of Rome."
Nestorian Sources
*Patriarch Sliba Zkha (714-728) (Moosa 212).
*Patriarch Timothy I (780-823) in Syrian Roman Catholic Bishop Clement Yusuf Dawud, Kitab Jami' al-Hujaj 203-205 (Moosa 212 nn. 71, 73).

Jacobite Sources
*Patriarch Dionysius Tal Mahri of Antioch (817-845) in Jacobite Patriarch Michael the Great's (1166-1199) Chronicle 11:22, p. 476 (p. 511 in the French translation) (qtd. in Moosa 114 n. 11):
And the Maronites remained as they are today, consecrating for themselves a patriarch and bishops from their monastery. They are distinguished from the followers of Maximus for their belief in one will in Christ and for reciting the Trisagion with the phrase "Thou Who was crucified for us." But they accept the Council of Chalcedon.
The Maronites Themselves
*"John Marun" in Exposition of the Faith in Vatican MS 146, p. 31 (Moosa 165 n. 90): "When we say Father, Son, and Holy Ghost we proclaim three persons and confess them to be one essence. Likewise when we say divinity and humanity we in fact confess one person, one Son, one will, and one authority."

This "John Marun" calls "Severus of Antioch ... a saint" in Vatican MS 146, p. 73 (Moosa 166 n. 96).
*Maronite Bishop Tuma "of Kfartab near Aleppo" in Vatican Garshuni MS 146, pp. 146-147 (qtd. in Moosa 111-112 n. 6):

Joseph Simon Assemani (†1768) (Bibliotheca Orientalis 1:508) admits that Tuma, whom he and Istefan al-Duwayhi say was a Maronite (Moosa 163 n. 82), was a Monothelite (Moosa 163 n. 83).
*"The propitiatory prayer (Husoyo in Syriac), which the officiating priest recites at the beginning of the Mass" in Vatican Garshuni MS 396, p. 24 (qtd. in Moosa 207 n. 51):
Praise be to the Merciful one Who dwelt in Mary in lowliness and shone forth from her womb as a man in humility. He went out to the wilderness with an ineffable union of His two true natures. He is one person and one will maintaining the properties of the dual natures without division.
*"The order of the ordination of deacons, priests, and bishops" in Vatican Syriac MS 48, p. 63 (qtd. in Moosa 207 n. 54):
Be united in the true faith with Jesus Christ Who has made you worthy to serve in this office. It is the faith of our saints and fathers the Apostles as well as the faith affirmed by the Councils, and the canons which contain their true teaching that our Lord and God Jesus Christ is one person, one Son, one Christ, and one will. For this reason He said, "I have come not to do My will but the will of Him Who sent Me." God forbid that He has two wills, and that after their union the Trinity be called a Quaternity.
*Maronite Patriarch Mikha'il al-Ruzzi (r. 1567-1581) held Jacobite heresies in the earlier part of his patriarchate, according to Ven. Maronite Patriarch Istefan al-Duwayhi (r. 1670-1704), Tarikh al-Ta'ifa al-Maruniyya 441, ed. Rashid al-Khuri al-Shartuni, Beirut, 1890 (Moosa 243 n. 41).