Saturday, December 30, 2017

Christmas Peace

Christmas Peace (The Holy Family by William Luberoff)

📷:  William Luberoff, The Holy Family via Pinterest

Friday, December 29, 2017

Mi Amor

Holy Martyr Marta, may you intercede for the salvation of your murderer Pedro Luis Gallego, as St. Maria Goretti interceded for her murderer Alessandro Serenelli.

The Servant of God Marta Obregón Rodríguez is listed at Hagiography Circle.

Spanish quote via Causa de Marta (
English quote via Catholic News Agency (
Image of Marta via

Pray for Georgia

Embed from Getty Images
Catholicos-Patriarch Ilia II of Georgia and Pope St. John Paul II by Grzegorz Galazka (

Please have a Traditional Latin Mass or Eastern Catholic Divine Liturgy offered for Ilia II, Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia [birth name: Irakli Ghudushauri-Shiolashvili (ირაკლი ღუდუშაური-შიოლაშვილი)], now 84 years of age. Join me in praying many Rosaries that he will become Catholic before he dies, and that his followers will do likewise. Evangelize him directly if possible! Fast if your health permits.

Like all Eastern Orthodox national churches, Georgia started out Catholic. With your prayers and penances, Georgia will be Catholic again!

"In 1065 St. George the Hagiorite, Abbot of the Iberian monastery on Mt. Athos, asserted in the presence of Emperor Constantine X the ancient belief in the inerrancy of the Roman Church."{1} The Georgian monks of Mt. Athos were in communion with Pope Innocent III (1198-1216),{2} who took them under his protection (Letter XIII:40 in PL 216:229BC and Letter XVI:168 in PL 216:956D-958A).{3}

The schism of the Georgian Church from the Catholic Church was not known until "between 1224 and 1240"{4}, during the time of Queen Rusudan (r. 1224-1245) the Catholicoi-Patriarchs of All Georgia Arsenius III (1222-1225), George IV (1225-1230), and Arsenius IV Bulmaisisdze (1230–1240), who was followed by Nicholas II (1240-1280). "One of the titles officially accorded to the king of Georgia by the contemporary Mamluk Court of Egypt was 'Supporter of the Pope,'"{5} and Queen Ketevan (1560-1624) went to Mass with and confessed to Catholic missionaries.{6}

Saint Nino, pray for us!
St. George the Hagiorite, pray for us!
Saint John Paul II, pray for us!

Notes & References
{1} Cyril Toumanoff, "Georgia, Church in Ancient," New Catholic Enyclopedia, vol. 6, 155
{2} Dr. Warren Carroll, A History of Christendom vol. 3, The Glory of Christendom (Front Royal, VA: Christendom Press, 1993), 169
{3} Thomas Shahan, "Mount Athos." The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 2 (New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907) <>
{4} Cyril Toumanoff, loc. cit.; cf. Fr. Raymond Janin, "Georgie" in Dictionnaire de theologie catholique (1914), vol. 6.2, 1258-1259 (pages 7-8 of the PDF)
{5} Ibid.
{6} John M. Flannery, The Mission of the Portuguese Augustinians to Persia and Beyond (1602-1747) (Brill, 2013), 221-224

Was Queen Ketevan Catholic?

Did Queen Ketevan die joined to the Catholic Church,

if not "in accomplished act"/"sacramentally"/"actu et proprie"/"corporally"/"in the full and strict sense of the word"/"in re"

at least

"in virtual act"/"in potentia"/"mentally"/"in effect"/"in voto et proxima dispositione"{1}, seeing "the truth of the Catholic faith, [being] truly sorry for [her] sins, and sincerely [desiring] to die a good Catholic" (Fr. Michael Müller, Familiar Explanation of Christian Doctrine III:108)?

We can only hope so, or else she is lost forever.

"'It is not the punishment, but the cause, that makes a martyr,' that is, the confession of the true faith" (St. Augustine, Sermon 328 qtd. in St. Alphonsus Liguori, On the History of Heresies and Their Refutation I:287). "Without faith it is impossible to please God" (Hebrews 11:6), "and if I should distribute all my goods to feed the poor, and if I should deliver my body to be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing" (1 Corinthians 13:3). "No one, let his almsgiving be as great as it may, no one, even if he pour out his blood for the Name of Christ, can be saved, unless he remain within the bosom and the unity of the Catholic Church" (Council of Florence, Denzinger 714).

The following data on Queen Ketevan (1560-1624) is available in John M. Flannery, The Mission of the Portuguese Augustinians to Persia and Beyond (1602-1747) [Brill, 2013]; I have not yet been able to consult pages 209-214 and 217-220:

(1) Fr. Pedro dos Santos said he and Fr. Ambrósio dos Anjos (†1642) "had aided and consoled Queen Ketevan, hearing her confession and doing everything necessary for the salvation of her soul" [222].
(2) Fr. Ambrósio dos Anjos says Ketevan "showed great affection for the Holy Catholic Church and for all the Latins, showing a strong love for them and helping them as much was within her power. She was always on such good terms with us that it is impossible that she could do anything contrary to the Holy Catholic Church" [222]. Specifically, she attended Catholic Masses and prayed in a Catholic Church, sent the Catholics a candle-maker and sent other expensive gifts to the Catholics, etc. [224]
(3) A text identifies her as a catechumen [221].
(4) Augustinian priests witnessed her torture and death at the hands of the Mohammedans and recovered her body, burying it in a Catholic monastery and keeping her relics.
(5) An evidently supernatural light was seen around her body after her death.
(6) In May 1628 Augustin Bajenc ("future Armenian Catholic archbishop of Nakhitchevan") told Fr. Ambrósio dos Anjos and Fr. Sebastião de Jesus that a local living saint had seen Queen Ketevan in a dream prophesying future success for Georgia against the Persians [215].
(7) Queen Ketevan seems to have always had a cult among the Augustinians in Goa.
(8) Fr. Antonio da Purificação put Queen Ketevan ("Reginae Gativandae") in an Augustinian calendar of saints (Chronologica Monastica for September 22 [222-223].
(9) In 1682 Fr. Antonio da Purificação said that the Augustinians converted Queen Ketevan to Catholicism and she publicly adjured the Georgian schism [223].
(10) In 1713 Fr. Faustino de Graça said that Fr. Ambrósio de Anjos catechized Ketevan and brought her into the Catholic Church [223].
(11) Around this time, "the Augustinians of Lisbon" made a tile illustration of "Venerable Gativanda, Queen of Georgia, Sister and Spiritual Daughter of the Order of St. Augustine" [223]. This is the image above, via
(12) In 1817 Fr. Manuel de Ave Maria (Goa Provincial) said Ketevan submitted herself to the Pope and publicly professed the Catholic faith [223].

(1) The Church universal to date has not declared her a martyr and canonized her (the separated Georgian Church has "canonized" her); in 1630 the Propaganda Fide did not request further information on the queen's death [221].
(2) "In 1640 [Fr.] Ambrósio de Anjos ... [stated] openly that Ketevan had never in fact left the bosom of the Georgian church," saying that "although she belonged to the Greek rite..." [221-222].
(3) In one place she is not said to have received the Body of Christ from Catholic priests before shedding her blood, but only "blessed bread" [225].
Comment: Does the data from the "Pro" section above suffice to dispose of objections (2) and (3) here?

Given Queen Ketevan's undeniable communio in sacris with Catholics, would the separated Easterns say that the shedding of her blood washed away what, in their minds, is gravely sinful?

Notes & References
{1} These expressions are found in two places:
(A) the Servant of God Charles Cardinal Journet, "The Church of the Word Incarnate," which has serious problems in its exposition of "No salvation outside the Church."
(B) the most excellent Orestes Brownson, "Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus" from Brownson's Quarterly Review, 1874 in The Works of Orestes A. Brownson, collected and arranged by Henry F. Brownson, vol. 5 (Detroit: Thorndike Nourse, 1884), 563.

Thursday, December 28, 2017

Must Women Cover Their Heads in Church?

Please take the time to read and share this post and remember, this is the truth! "But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach a gospel to you besides that which we have preached to you, let him be anathema" (Galatians 1:8). "My job is to inform, not to convince," says St. Bernadette Soubirous. "He that hath ears to hear, let him hear" (Matthew 11:15).

Are women still required to wear veils in the House of God? Perhaps most Catholics today believe they are not. But what is the truth? Jackie Freppon in a recent newsletter article reports:

During the Second Vatican Council, a mob of reporters waited for news after a council meeting. One of them asked Msgr. Annibale Bugnini, then secretary of the Vatican Congregation for Divine Worship, if women still had to wear a headcovering in church. He responded that the bishops were considering other issues, and women’s veils were not on the agenda. The next day, the international press announced throughout the world that women did not have to keep their heads covered in church anymore. A few days later, Msgr. Bugnini told the press he was misquoted and women must still wear the veil. But the press did not retract the error, and many women stopped wearing the veil as out of confusion and because of pressure from feminist groups.

We read in First Corinthians:

Every man praying or prophesying with his head covered, disgraceth his head. But every women praying or prophesying with her head not covered, disgraceth her head: for it is all one as if she were shaven.

For if a woman be not covered, let her be shorn. But if it be a shame to a woman to be shorn or made bald, let her cover her head. The man indeed ought not to cover his head, because he is the image and glory of God. But the woman is the glory of the man. For the man is not of the woman but the woman of the man. For the man was not created for the woman: but the woman for the man.

Therefore ought the woman to have a power over her head, because of the angels.… 

“You yourselves judge. Doth it become a woman to pray unto God uncovered? Doth not even nature itself teach you, that a man indeed, if he nourish his hair, it is a shame unto him? But if a woman nourish her hair, it is a glory to her; for her hair is given to her for a covering. But if any man seem to be contentious, we have no such custom, nor the church of God.” (1Cor. 11:4-10,13-16).

Here we see that the custom of the woman veiling her head in church is something bound up in her proper relation to the man as ordained by God. For the man, as Scripture teaches, is in authority over his wife (Eph. 5:22-33). We also see that “nature itself” teaches the logic of the veiling of a woman’s head. For, during divine worship when all attention is to be directed to the adoration of Almighty God, reason dictates that women must conceal the beauty of their hair and be modestly clad so as not to cause a distraction to men.

This passage, being Scriptural, is a divinely inspired teaching. Some would like to believe this teaching was just St. Paul’s personal opinion, but Paul himself in the same epistle said: “…know that the things I write to you, that they are the commandments of the Lord.” (1 Cor. 14:37). And, speaking on Sacred Scripture, Pope Leo XIII taught in his encyclical Providentissiumus Deus that “all the books which the Church receives as sacred and canonical, are written wholly and entirely, with all their parts, at the dictation of the Holy Ghost.”

St. Paul’s final words show to anyone who wants to act contrary to this practice, that it is an unchangeable apostolic and ecclesial tradition: “…if any man be contentious, we [i.e. Apostles] have no such custom, nor the church of God.” And the Fathers of the Church unanimously agree. For instance, St. John Chrysostom states: “To oppose this practiced is contentious, which is irrational. The Corinthians might object, but if they do they are going against the practice of the Universal Church” (Homilies on First Corinthians, 26, 5). And Tertullian states: “What is the meaning of ‘every woman’ except women of every age, every rank, and every circumstance? No one is excepted” (On Prayer, 22, 4, on 1 Cor. 11:5). Please note, Pope St. Pius X, in his encyclical Pascendi reiterated the Church’s teaching that apostolic and ecclesial traditions are not to be changed:

But for Catholics nothing will remove the authority of the second Council of Nicea, where it condemns those “who dare, after the impious fashion of heretics, to deride the ecclesiastical traditions…or endeavor by malice of craft to overthrow any one of the legitimate traditions of the Catholic Church”.… Wherefore the Roman Pontiffs, Pius IV and Pius IX, ordered the insertion in the profession of the faith of the following declaration: “I most firmly admit and embrace the apostolic and ecclesiastical traditions and other observances and constitutions of the Church.”

This apostolic tradition was kept always and everywhere in continuum for nearly 2000 years. Nowhere in all Church history do we find a breech in this venerable practice until some 35-40 years ago. Yet, even today, there exists no Church document abrogating this observance.

While it is true that there was a provision in the 1917 Code of Canon Law (Can. 1262.2) calling for the veil that is not seen in the new 1983 Code, that does not mean the it is no longer required. In the effort for simplification of Canon Law, this provision — already called for in Scripture and tradition — was simply left out. In fact, being that it is both a Scriptural teaching and a traditional observance, we have reason to believe that the Church hierarchy has no authority to change this observance. Therefore, what we seem to be seeing today — with the majority of women entering churches with their heads unveiled — can be considered a breech in a divinely mandated observance which is being universally tolerated. The unveiled head may indeed seem to be a small thing, but Jesus taught: “He therefore that shall break one of these least commandments, and shall so teach men, shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven.” (Mt. 5:19). Let us remember the proof of our love for God: “If you love me keep my commandments.” (John 14:15).

And then, how edifying it is to see women in church modestly dressed and heads veiled! How much it contributes to the atmosphere of sacredness in the House of God! How pleasing it is to the Angels of God! (1Cor. 11:10)

Robert T. Hart, "Those Who Serve God Should Not Follow The Fashions," 6th edition (2017), Appendix II: Headcovering in Church, 43-45 (


Looking for a beautiful veil? (BVM code for 30% off)

I have no affiliation with these websites; I am posting these links only for the greater glory of God and the salvation of souls.

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Monday, December 25, 2017

God's Birthday: December 25

Would the Church not know the birthday of her Founder from the earliest of times? It was always known that Christ was born on December 25, and the commemoration did not only begin in 335 and was not based on Mithraic myths as one Protestant article says:

(a) the Blessed Virgin Mary informed the Apostles of her Son’s birthday
(b) Before 137, Pope St. Telesphorus “instituted … the Midnight Mass on Christmas Eve”
(c) Before 181, Bishop Theophilus of Caesarea (†181) said we should celebrate Christ’s birth on December 25
(d) Before 235, St. Hippolytus said Christ was born on December 25
(e) The Syrian Catholic Church has always commemorated the Annunciation on March 25
(f) In 400, St. Augustine confirmed this tradition of the December 25 birthday of the Lord
(g) A consideration of Sacred Scripture confirms the December 25 birthday of the Lord

See God’s Birthday by Dr. Taylor Marshall - subscribe to his excellent podcast The Taylor Marshall Show.

Merry Christmas

"For a Child is born to us, and a Son is given to us, and the government is upon His shoulder: and His name shall be called, Wonderful, Counselor, God the Mighty, the Father of the world to come, the Prince of Peace" (Isaiah 9:6).

Image credit: ?

Sunday, December 24, 2017

Original Sin: Our Just Punishment

God cannot be charged with injustice in depriving us, on account of the transgression of our first parents, of all the advantages of original justice. No; we are justly chastised by Him. A king, for example, raises one of his subjects to a dignity to which he has no just claim, and tells him that he and his descendants will always enjoy that dignity, in case he continue faithful to Him. The loyalty of this subject is put to the test; the subject becomes guilty of treason, and at once he is deprived of his dignity, and not only he but all his descendants. Is there any injustice in the proceeding of this king with regard to this subject and his descendants? No; in punishment of his infidelity, he and his posterity have been justly deprived of the possessions and honours which had been bestowed upon him. So, too, God, in depriving the posterity of Adam, on account of his infidelity, of the advantages of original justice, has not acted unjustly, for He owed us nothing. 
Fr. Patrick Power, Catechism: doctrinal, moral, historical, and liturgical: with answers to the objections drawn from the sciences against religion (London: Burnes and Oates), vol. 1, 8th ed., 221 <>

Saints Adam and Eve, pray for us.

Image via

Saturday, December 23, 2017

Men: Dress Your Best at Mass

"Men have all kinds of excuses for why they wear casual clothing to the Mass. Each of these excuses exposes both a lack of reverence for Jesus Christ and an unmanly lack of virtue."

The Catholic Gentleman, "Dressing Like a Man for Mass" (

Thursday, December 21, 2017

On Non-Catholic Miracles

Here is a revised, under-construction version of an old post "On Miracles Outside the Catholic Church."

No Salvation Outside the Catholic Church
No one who dies outside of the Catholic Church can be saved [Denzinger 247, 423, 430, 468-469, 570b, 714]. As for those who have been invincibly ignorant of the Catholic Church, they cannot be saved if they die as such, but "God may enlighten, at the hour of death, one who is not yet a Catholic, so that he may see the truth of the Catholic faith, be truly sorry for his sins, and sincerely desire to die a good Catholic" [Fr. Michael Müller, Familiar Explanation of Christian Doctrine III (New York, Catholic Publication Society, 1875), 108].

No True Miracles Justify Separation from the Catholic Church
We must reject "any miracle sought or 'obtained' to confirm heresy tor to buttress an heterodox creed," or any so-called miracle "which, whether or not directly sought or obtained to confirm error, would by its context suggest or confirm such an interpretation" [Fr. Louis Monden, S.J., Signs and Wonders: A Study of the Miraculous Element in Religion (New York: Desclee Company, Inc., 1966), 136]. He continues, "God cannot give his sanction to error nor can he accord unconditional approval to partial truth. Once again, it is in the context of prayer that the Protestant or Orthodox miracle will take place rather than in the context of testimony or even of sanctity. And the occurrence of any major miracle which would, of its nature, suggest an apologetic use, remains, in the theological view, unlikely" (139). "God could not seal with miraculous approval a teaching that is false. With the certainty of faith, we may affirm that a miracle invoked to confirm error in the profession of doctrine, the announcement of a message, or the communication of a private revelation which contradicts the divine revelation which the infallible teaching presents us, is merely an illusion and imposture. On this question Pascal justly remarked, 'Miracles are the test of doctrine, and doctrine the test of miracles' [Pensées 803]" (76).

Likewise St. Thomas Aquinas says (Summa Theologica II-II, q. 178, art. 2, ad 3):
Miracles are always true witnesses to the purpose for which they are wrought. Hence wicked men who teach a false doctrine never work true miracles in confirmation of their teaching, although sometimes they may do so in praise of Christ's name which they invoke, and by the power of the sacraments which they administer. If they teach a true doctrine, sometimes they work true miracles as confirming their teaching, but not as an attestation of holiness. Hence Augustine says (QQ. lxxxiii, qu. 79): "Magicians work miracles in one way, good Christians in another, wicked Christians in another. Magicians by private compact with the demons, good Christians by their manifest righteousness, evil Christians by the outward signs of righteousness."  
And the New Catholic Encyclopedia says, "God would not work a miracle under such circumstances that it could reasonably be interpreted as divine confirmation of another religion as a whole or of a doctrine contrary to the teachings of Christ and his Church" (T. G. Pater, "Miracles (Theology of)," New Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 9, 2nd ed. (Detroit: Gale, 2003), 669-670 ).

Major Miracles
"The Roman Catholic Church, while not claiming an absolute monopoly, which could not be proved because of the very nature of history, does have a practical monopoly on what we have called 'major miracle,'" says Fr. Monden (321), and "they occur with a regularity that excludes all possibility of error and fortuitous coincidence," that is "in an unpredictable and yet regular manner, which is in striking contrast with non-Christian religions and other Christian denominations, where its absence is glaring" (250).

What is a "major miracle" or "major prodigy"? Fr. Monden explains (179-180):
Only those facts will be accepted as having an apologetic application whose extraordinary character suggests beyond a doubt a religious signification because identical or similar facts never appear in the purely secular domain. The characteristics of "major prodigy" as described by E. Dhanis, from whom we borrow the very expression,6 are the following. "The ordinary course of natural events from which these facts deviate has been observed many times and under a great variety of conditions; no man can recall a deviation of the same type and of comparable magnitude ever having occurred in secular circumstances; the prodigy must take place in a normal setting, that is, one excluding the suspicion that unusual conditions or means might be the cause." In the following we shall use the word "major prodigy" or "major miracle" in the precise sense of events meeting the conditions listed in this paragraph.

What facts, then, are to be included in this category [of major miracles with intrinsic apologetic significance]? In what appears an order of increasing importance, e included certain cosmic manifestations; multiplications of matter, such as food or fuel; and finally, raising of the dead and the instantaneous or extremely rapid healing of properly diagnosed organic diseases.

If a raging storm were calmed on the instant, or an empty barn, securely bolted from the outside, were suddenly filled with grain, everyone would readily agree that never in the memory of mankind have such events occurred in a purely secular context. The difficulty arising here is this: these and similar manifestations must be accepted on testimony; outside of a perhaps abundant number of reliable witnesses, no tangible proof of the miraculous event can be offered as a rule. The one who clings to his doubt will always find it possible to challenge even the most dependable witness and thus avoid to assenting to the reality of the miracle.

The conditions accompanying an instantaneous healing are altogether different. Characteristically, a disease is subject to every kind of scientific testing, objective diagnosis and measuring. Social progress makes the task even easier by establishing, in ever greater numbers, mutual aid societies, clinics, and laboratories. The fact of a sudden miraculous cure does not have to be accepted on human testimony alone, or upon the personal diagnosis of one physician; a host of material, tangible and measurable proofs are normally available, showing the condition of the body both before and after the cure.

For practical purposes, therefore, miraculous cure is the best kind of apologetic proof.

6 E. Dhanis, "Un chaînon de la preuve du miracle," Problemi scelti di Teologia contemporanea (Rome, 1954), pp. 63-86. The passage quoted is on p. 66. It should be made clear that we are speaking of "major miracles" in a sense altogether different from that given by Benedict XIV to the words "prodigium maius." 
These are NOT major miracles: "All of the secondary, physical or clinical manifestations of mystical experience: visions, inner voices, levitation, trance, and ecstasy; more particularly still, apparitions and stigmata; finally, all manifestation related to parapsychological powers, such as premonitory dreams, mind-reading, prophesying, and the like" (177).

Fr. Monden goes on (181):
First, the practitioner recognizes organic lesions, when the anatomical or histological integrity of an organ is affected by an internal or external cause (hernia, cancer, toxication, parasites, and the like), or the organ shows a congenital malformation or is in a state of degeneration or gradual disintegration.
What are some Catholic examples of this? Plenty of examples of well-authenticated scientifically inexplicable complete, immediate, and permanent healings of properly diagnosed organic lesions are to be found at the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Lourdes, which has "ordinary water" with no "remedial properties" that has not allowed the spread of contagious diseases despite not being frequently changed (238-239):
Doctor Béhague concludes his series of studies [on the Lourdes miracles], published in the Cahiers Laënnec and quoted several times by us in the present work, with the following ad hominem appeal:
You doctors, and you specialists in particular; you former and present students who work in the services which deal with the sick in their thousands, have you seen:
(a) A case of two detached retinas originating in a shock suddenly cured seven and a half years after-wards, the sight returning 'like a shot from a gun'? (Vion-Dury).
(b) White atrophy of the papillas of both eyes cured in such a way that the sight returned instantly and permanently while the papillary whiteness only disappeared as time went on? (Mme Biré).
(c) A case of evolutive pulmonary tuberculosis calcify in a few days or a case of peritoneal tuberculosis rapidly disappearing? (Louis Jamain, Gabrielle Durand).
(d) A case of tubercular meningitis (with Koch bacilli in the cerebrospinal fluid which contained 150 lymphocytes per mm3) make a single leap from the final coma and possess, within a month after the previous lumbar puncture, a normal cerebrospinal fluid free from bacilli? (Mlle Margerie).
(e) An open fracture of the leg with chronic osteomyelitis and pseudarthrosis heal instantly and spontaneously so as to permit immediate walking? (De Rudder).
(f) A cancer of the pylorus and the liver heal suddenly and the functioning of the gastroenterostomy (visible by X-rays) instantly disappear (Mlle Delot).
If you have seen any of these things please let us know. We ourselves have never seen them except in the cases mentioned...59
As every physician will agree, nothing of the sort has ever occurred in his practice, he knows that never in the memory of man have such rapid cures been reported in the annals of medicine.

59 Flood, op. cit., p. 242
Fr. Monden continues (239-240),
We have given a lengthy account of the Lourdes facts, and found them, as did many others before us, the Catholic idea of the miraculous in its clearest form, precisely because at this shrine the miraculous is an object of well organized, systematic checking. Yet it would be impossible to conclude that Lourdes has a monopoly on miracles, even on miracles within the Catholic Church.

There exist other privileged places where miraculous cures did and do occur under the same conditions of serious checking and vertification [... the Fátima ... "Banneux and Beauraing shrines," etc.].
Orthodox Miracles?
We sometimes hear of "miracles" being worked by Orthodox Christians, especially those who were explicitly anti-Catholic (Job of Pochayiv, Seraphim of Sarov, John of Kronstadt, Alexis Toth, Nectarios of Aegina etc.), as if this confirmed that their anti-Catholic teaching was true and their lives were holy. Fr. Monden (305-306):
The problem appears under an altogether different light when we consider Russian Orthodoxy where canonization is practiced as in the Roman Catholic Church. Like Catholicism, but even more exclusively, the Russian Church insists on miracles as criteria of the holiness of her great children, This outward similarity, however,  should not prevent us from examining at a closer range the nature of Orthodox miracles.

We should bear in mind from the outset that Slavs in general, and Russians in particular, are inclined to speak of miracles far more freely than Occidentals. They see the miraculous element everywhere and accept it in full confidence; they would not think of making their assent depend upon an official approbation by the Church or a critical examination of the facts.111 Consequently, the title of "miracle-worker"given by the people to a deceased holy person is even more fragile a proof of the rality of the miraculous events than in the Western Church.

Moreover, pre-canonization inquests in the Orthodox Church are different from their Roman counterparts. Examination of the bodily remains is of primary importance; perfect preservation is a favorable and often conclusive factor warranting canonization.112 The statement itself that the remains are "preserved intact" is taken in a convential and broad sense, as indications and details below will show.113 This would give us the right to assume that the norms applied in these inquests concerning miraculous events are not the same as the strict rules applied by the Catholic Church, and thus no purported miraculous facts may be accepted as such without prudent critical investigation in every case.

111 See A. Staerk's introduction to the French edition of Jean de Kronstadt: Ma vie en Jésus-Christ (Paris, 1902), pp. 244-245. Some typical features of popular credulousness are quoted in A. Martel: "Miracles et légendes de l'Ukraine contemporaine," Irenikon, 6 (1929), 517-526.
112 See. J. Bois, "Canonisation dans l'Église Russe," Dictionnaire de théol. cath., II, c. 1663; P. Peeters, "La canonisation des saints dans l'Église Russe," Analecta Bollandiana, 33 (1914), 380-420; E. Behr-Sigel, Prière et sainteté dans l'Eglise Russe (Paris, 1950), II: "La canonisation dans l'Eglise Orthodox," pp. 24-35; Y. Congar: "A propos des saints canonisés dans les Eglises orthodoxes," Revue des sciences religieuses, 22 (1948), 240-259.
113 See J. Bois, art. cit., c. 1669.
Perhaps during the life of the Orthodox Christians one can:
readily recognize ... proofs of a supernatural intervention of God ... but none of them qualifies as a major miracle, that is, one with an intrinsic apologetic value and of the kind we have so far found absent everywhere except in the Catholic Church. 
For example (307),
the cases of Michael Manturov and Judge Nikolai Motovilov [in the life of Seraphim of Sarov]. Both are cases of functional paralysis which, judging by the way the illness and the manner of the cure are described, could have been cured, medically speaking, through spontaneous psychotherapy with religious motivation. At the Lourdes Bureau cases like these would not even be considered.
Likewise, all the cures at the tomb of Gregory Palamas reported by Patriarch Philotheus I of Constantinople would have been rejected as insufficient by the Congregation for the Causes of Saints [Fr. Martin Jugie, A.A., Le Schisme Byzantin: Aperçu historique et doctrinal (Paris: P. Lethielleux, 1941) 450-451]. Patriarch Seraphim I of Constantinople did not mention any miracles by Mark of Ephesus when he "canonized" the latter in 1734 (451).

And in the case of John of Kronstadt (308-309),
none of these accounts ... show any fact that could be considered more than an outstanding case of God's responding to prayer, or is such as could be called a major miracle116. ... we are very far here from any major prodigies.117

116 Ibid., pp. 247-248.
117 A. Staerk: op. cit., p. 245: "If we are to believe a certain type of popular literature which sounds too much like propaganda and with which, we are sure, Father John has nothing to do, some of these cures show features of instantaneousness that seem truly miraculous; only these events took place ten to twenty years ago and thus exclude all possibility of checking." On John of Kronsadt, see an anonymous article in L'ami du clergé 23 (1900), 117-122; A. Retel in Echos d'Orient, (1906), pp. 44ff.; M. Jugie in Echos d'Orient (1913), pp. 57-60; G. P. Fedotov, A Treasury of Russian Spirituality (New York, 1948), pp. 346-416.
And are you sure, in a given case, that the "miracle" is not the product of demons (155-156), imagination, "pathological hallucination undergone in good faith" (77), the cure of merely psychogenic and psychosomatic disorders (181-182), "trickery and illusion" (278), "psychoreligious disorders and pseudomystical fanaticism" (319), "common quackery" (272), exaggeration (258), legendary accretion (269), "charlatanism and vaudeville" (285), "some involuntary error" (77), embellishment (259), "hypnotic suggestion" (258), "popular fantasy" (271), "a temporary and subjective feeling of improvement" (304), "purposeful malice, insanity, vengeance, mystification, or misplaced practical joking ... the need for the sensational ... credulousness, hysterical affabulation or other mental disturbances ... certain types of intoxication, not only through alcohol but also carbon monoxide or mercury" (291), or "conscious fraud and simulation" (319)?

In the case of cures, "is the illness real or imaginary? Does the cure take place with or without medical aid? As for ... dreams ... are they spontaneous ... or are they provoked by artificial means?" (256-257)

As stated above, the Orthodox assign large importance to the preservation of relics. Are these cases of supernatural incorruptibility of relics? Is the flesh of normal pigmentation? Is it withered? Is the body still flexible? What were the circumstances of entombment (embalming, burial in a dry vs. wet space, etc.)?

Gregory Palamas (1296-1359), who wrote against the Filioque 
(image by Kh. Miray Saikali via

Job of Pochayiv (1551-1651), who wrote against unleavened bread and participated in other 
anti-Catholic activities (photographer unknown)

John of Shanghai and San Francisco (1896-1966), who wrote against the Immaculate Conception
(image via

Fr. Ilie Lacatusu (1909-1983), a Romanian Orthodox priest
(image via
John the Russian (1690-1730)
(image via

John Jacob the Chozebite (1913-1960)

More could be said of miracles claimed by Protestants, Yogis, Mohammedans, etc. I invite the reader who wishes to know more to consult Fr. Monden's book, and to pray for the repose of his soul.

Our Lady of Fátima, pray for us!

Top Image credit:

Wednesday, December 20, 2017

Faith Is Reasonable

My faith in the Christian mysteries is then supremely reasonable. It proves a sound and logical mind. My reason has said to me, "These witnesses [Jesus Christ and His Catholic Church] can neither deceive you nor themselves. They bring you THE TRUTH from heaven!" I should not be true to my reason were I not to believe their word.
Bishop Louis Gaston de Ségur, Short and Familiar Answers to the Most Common Objections Urged Against Religion (New York: P. O'Shea, 1880), 76 ( - image credit: ?
Click here to help me pay off my debt so I can begin formation for the priesthood - thank you!

Tuesday, December 19, 2017

The Dignity of the Catholic Church

Pope St. John XXIII, pray for us. 

Full text of Veterum Sapientia at

Prayer For Pope Francis

O God, the Shepherd and Ruler of all the faithful, look down favorably upon Thy servant Francis, whom Thou hast been pleased to appoint pastor over Thy Church; grant, we beseech Thee, that he may benefit both by word and example those over whom he is set, and thus attain unto life eternal, together with the flock committed to his care. Through our Lord Jesus Christ Who livest and reigneth with Thee in the unity of the Holy Ghost, God, world without end. Amen. 
Cf. Francis Patrick Cardinal Moran, The Catholic Prayer Book and Manual of Meditation (Dublin: Browne and Nolan, Nassau-Street, 1883), 500 <>

Monday, December 18, 2017

Invincible Ignorance

There's a lot of ignorance about invincible ignorance. Well-meaning men and women, mistakenly thinking this to be the teaching of the Church, tell friends that adults who *die* invincibly ignorant of the Catholic Church can be saved. Let's "set the error right" (St. Cyril of Jerusalem, Catechical Lecture 6 §15). Orestes Brownson, Bishop George Hay, and Fr. Michael Müller, champions of the dogma Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus, come to our assistance.

Orestes Brownson:
"That those in societies alien to the church, invincibly ignorant of the church, if they correspond to the graces they receive, and persevere, will be saved, we do not doubt, but not where they are, or without being brought to the church."

"The Great Question" from Brownson’s Quarterly Review, 1847 in The Works of Orestes A. Brownson, collected and arranged by Henry F. Brownson, vol. 5 (Detroit: Thorndike Nourse, 1884), 547 (

"The Catholic who holds implicitly the Catholic faith, but errs through invincible ignorance with regard to some of its consectaria and even dogmas, may be saved; but how can a man be said to hold implicitly the Catholic faith, who holds nothing or rejects every principle that implies it? It is not safe to apply to Protestants, who really deny everything Catholic, a rule that is very just when applied to sincere but ignorant Catholics, or Catholics that err through inculpable ignorance."

"Protestantism Antichristian" in The Works of Orestes A. Brownson, collected and arranged by Henry F. Brownson, vol. 8 (Detroit: Thorndike Nourse, 1884), 456 (

Bishop George Hay:
 ".. if they live and die in that state [invincible ignorance of the truth] they shall not be saved, and ... according to the present providence they cannot be saved; but the great God is able to take them out of that state, to cure even their ignorance though invincible to them in their present situation, to bring them to the knowledge of the True Faith, to the Communion of His Holy Church, and to salvation: and we further add, that if He be pleased, of His infinite mercy, to save any who are at present in invincible ignorance of the truth, in order to act consistently with Himself, and with His Holy Word, He will undoubtedly bring them to the union of His Holy Church for that purpose before they die."

Bishop George Hay, The Sincere Christian vol. 2, "An Inquiry whether Salvation can be had without true faith, and out of the communion of that one only church established by Christ," 300, q. 15 (

Fr. Michael Müller:

Fr. Michael Müller, Familiar Explanation of Christian Doctrine, No. III (New York, Catholic Publication Society, 1875), 108 ( Compare with St. Thomas Aquinas: "If someone [who] is brought up in the forest or among wild beasts ... followed the direction of natural reason in seeking good and avoiding evil, we must most certainly hold that God would either reveal to him through internal inspiration what had to be believed, or would send some preacher of the faith to him as He sent Peter to Cornelius (Acts 10:20)" [St. Thomas Aquinas, The Disputed Questions on Truth, Vol. II , Q. 14, a. 2; trans. Robert W. Mulligan, S.J. (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 1952, 262)

I hope you see, brethren, how saying otherwise makes nonsense of the dogma that there is no salvation outside the Church. If not, take the time to read through the sources above, where the authors fully develop this point, something beyond the scope of this brief post.

Ave Maria!

Sunday, December 17, 2017

Saturday, December 16, 2017

The Glory of Jerusalem

Praised be Jesus and Mary forever and ever! I love and thank thee, O Blessed Virgin Mary, Queen of the Most Holy Rosary, for it was by thy intercession that friends and family generously donated $1,692 this week to help me clear more debt and get closer to starting formation to serve God and thee as a priest.

"And when she was come out to him, they all blessed her with one voice, saying: 'Thou art the glory of Jerusalem, thou art the joy of Israel, thou art the honor of our people'" (Judith 15:10).

Thank you everyone for continuing to help - God bless you and yours!

Ave Maria!

Images: Aquinas & More, 2nd image source unknown

I Warn You, As I Warned You Before

'If I saw anyone about to fall into a pit or a fire, would I not run up to him and warn him, and do all in my power to help him from falling in? Why should I not do this much to keep sinners from falling into the pit and fires of Hell?

Neither can I understand why other priests who believe the selfsame truths as I do, as we all must do, do not preach or exhort their flock so that they might avoid this unbearable eternity of Hell. It is still a source of wonder to me how the laity - those men and women blessed with the Faith - do not give warning to those who need it. If a house were to catch fire in the middle of the night, and if the inhabitants of the same house and the other townsfolk were asleep and did not see the danger, would not the one who first noticed it shout and run along the streets, exclaiming: "Fire! Fire! In that house over there!" Then why should there not be a warning of eternal fire to waken those who are drifting in the sleep of sin in such a way that when they open their eyes they will find themselves burning in the eternal flames of Hell?' 
 St. Anthony Mary Claret, Autobiography <>

17 Proofs of the Real Presence

With the gift of faith, we can appreciate at least seventeen means by which “Jesus confirmed His followers in their faith in regard to the Holy Eucharist” – Fr. Michael Müller, one of my favorite authors (lots of his works are at this page) goes into much more detail in the book cited at the end of this post:

1. “The institution of the feast of Corpus Christi” by the Church in 1264

2. Excommunication by the Church of those who denied it, and “preaching and writing in defense of the Real Presence”

3. The angels adore the Eucharist (testimony of St. John Chrysostom, St. Euthymius, St. Anastasius, St. Gudwal, St. Bridget of Sweden, Pope St. Gregory I, St. Oswald, etc.)

4. “Souls in Purgatory” appeared to say they needed Masses to be freed (testimony from Bl. Henry Suso, St. Bernard)

5. Children proclaimed the Real Presence (like St. Jane Frances de Chantal when she was five)

6. Satan proclaimed the Real Presence during public exorcisms of Nicole Aubrey in Laon, France, which ended on 2/8/1556

7. Miraculous hosts (Augsburg in 1194)

8. “Supernatural Favors” beyond number obtained by praying to Jesus in the Blessed Sacrament (Anne de la Fosse in 1725, Emperor Maximilian I of Austria, St. Peter of Alcantara, St. Francis de Sales, Ann Clery of Metz)

9. “Divine chastisements” for those denying or blaspheming the Real Presence (the miserable and sudden deaths of the blasphemer in Edinghausen on 1/5/1807; the impious barber of Turin witnessed by M. Raet, the Lutheran nobleman in Erfurt in 1563; the son of the mayor of Duren in the 1850s, Mrs. H in Massachusetts, one of the pillagers of the Ursuline convent of Charlestown Massachusetts, a scoffer in Rottwell whose damned soul haunted his house after his death, a man in Treves Germany dropping dead right after blaspheming a Eucharistic Procession)

10. “Panic-stricken soldiers” fleeing “in terror” when St. Clare of Assisi held up the Blessed Sacrament

11. “Rays of light issuing from the Sacred Host” (a monk interviewed by John Moschus; in 1453 in Turin; in Favernay in France as related by St. Francis de Sales; Giuseppe and Giovanni Orefice at S. Pietro à Paterno in Naples on 2/18/1772; many instances during the time of the heretic John Wycliffe)

12. “Miraculous Communions” (St. Barbara carrying Communion to St. Stanislaus, St. Michael carrying communion, the miraculous Communion and holy death of Bl. Imelda Lambertini †1333; St. John of Vianney’s parishioners; St. Bonaventure,

13. “Blood issuing from the Sacred Host” (parish church at Vrigne-aux-Bois in 1859; in Bohemia during the time of King Wencelas IV; Peter of Cavenelas, O.S.H.; the hosts stolen by John de Luvain from “the church of St. John the Baptist at Malembeck” in 1369; also you can Google “Eucharistic miracles”)

14. Saints “could detect the Blessed Sacrament even when hidden, and at a distance” (Bl. Margaret of the Blessed Sacrament, O.C.D. †1660; Bl. Ida of Louvain †1300; Cassetus the Carmelite; St. Colette of Corbie, P.C.C.; Juliana the Cistercian nun; St. Francis Borgia; St. Lidwina of Schiedam [also Bl. Margaret of Costello]

15. “Irrational animals proclaim the Real Presence” (the obstinate heretic Bovillus converting after the hungry donkey bowed to the Blessed Sacrament held by St. Anthony of Padua; the sheep that always followed St. Francis of Assisi would kneel at the consecration during Mass; the baker’s untrained dog at Lisbon; the bees building a monstrance around a stolen Host in Germany)

16. The good Lord visibly appearing as a Child or a Man (Bl. Widukind of Westphalia in 804; Thomas Catimpré in Douay; Fr. Plegile; Pope St. Gregory I the Great; Mr. Pollworth who was received into the Church by Fr. Anthony Urbanek in 1848)

17. “The Supernatural Effects of Holy Communion” (the martyrdoms of St. Lawrence, St. Vincent, St. Ignatius of Antioch and many others; the survival on Holy Communion alone by St. Catherine of Siena, a virgin in Rome, St. Nicholas of Flue, St. Liberalis of Athens, and many others): “‘No, no!’ said I to myself with eyes bathed in tears, God alone can make such deep impressions on the soul; God alone can thus absorb our minds and make us forget all creatures; God alone can thus calm the most violent passions; God alone can so change hearts, draw them to Him, and constitute their happiness here below!”[1]

[1] Fr. Michael Müller, C.Ss.R., God the Teacher of Mankind: The Sacraments of the Holy Eucharist and Penance (New York: Benziger Brothers, 1884), 58-145 <>

Original photo link: ?

The Four Ends of the Mass

"The Sacrifice of the Mass is offered for Four Ends: Adoration, Atonement, Thanksgiving, and Petition."

This was recently posted by Brian Williams, The Liturgy Guy; cf. Dr. Peter Kwasniewski, Review of Treasure and Tradition: The Ultimate Guide to the Latin Mass. Please keep Brian and Dr. Peter in your daily prayers.

God Is The Only Goal

Friday, December 15, 2017

Ice and Snow, Bless the Lord

📷: The Sea of Ice or The Wreck of Hope by Caspar David Friedrich (1823-1824) -

Do Penance

📷: Fra Girolamo Savonarola, O.P. (1452-1498) via

Martin Luther Is In Hell

Luther was the sport of his unbridled passions, of pride, resentment, and lust … he was turbulent, abusive, and sacrilegious, in the highest degree … he was the trumpeter of sedition, civil war, rebellion, and desolation; and … by his own account, he was the scholar of Satan, in the most important article of his pretended Reformation. I have made out nearly as heavy a charge against his chief followers, Carlostad, Zuinglius, Ochin, Calvin, Beza, and Cranmer. 
Fr. John Milner, The End of Religious Controversy (Baltimore: Fielding Lucas, Jr., 1846), 128 (
Luther closed his career by a death corresponding to his intemperate and immoral life. He had been a professed religious of the Order of St. Augustine; but, throwing off the cowl, he married the abbess of a certain nunnery, and finally, in the year 1564, having supped sumptuously, as was his custom, he was attacked suddenly in the night by mortal pains, and died as he had lived, amid feasting and iniquity.
Fr. Michael Müller, C.Ss.R., God the Teacher of Mankind: The Church and Her Enemies, "How the Persecutors of the Church Die" (New York: Benziger Brothers, 1880), 209 (
Via Gloria.TV:

In 1883, Sister Maria Serafina Micheli (1849-1911) was beatified in Faicchio in the province of Benevento in the diocese of Cerreto Sannita 28 May 2011, the foundress of the Sisters of the Angels, was going to Eisleben, Saxony, the birthplace of Luther. The fourth centenary of the birth of the great heretic (10 November 1483) was celebrated on that day.

The streets were crowded, balconies included. Among the many personalities were expected at any time, with the arrival of Emperor Wilhelm I, who presided over the solemn celebrations.

The future Blessed
, noting the great hoopla was not interested in knowing the reason for this unusual animation, wanted to find a church and pray to be able to make a visit to the Blessed Sacrament. After walking for a while, she finally found one, but the doors were closed. She knelt on the steps for serenity prayer. As it was in the evening, she had not noticed that it was not a Catholic church, but Protestant. While praying, the angel appeared, who said to her. “Arise, because it is a Protestant church” Then he added: “But I want you to see where Martin Luther was condemned and the pain he suffered as a punishment for his pride.”

After these words, she saw a terrible abyss of fire, where they were cruelly tortured countless souls. In the bottom of this hole there was a man, Martin Luther, which differed from the other: it was surrounded by demons that forced him to kneel, and all armed with hammers, they tried in vain , to shove a big nail in the head. Religious thought, if some of the people had seen this dramatic scene, they would not have made honors and other commemorations and celebrations for such a character.

Later, when the opportunity arose to remind his sisters live in humility and in secret. She was convinced that Martin Luther was punished in hell especially for the first deadly sin of pride. Pride is a deadly sin, brought him open rebellion against the Roman Catholic Church. His behavior, his attitude towards the Church, and his preaching were crucial to encourage and bring many souls to eternal ruin.

Origin of the Rosary

Second Rose: Origin of the Rosary
Since the Holy Rosary is composed, principally and in substance, of the Prayer of Christ and the Angelic Salutation, that is, the Our Father and the Hail Mary, it was without doubt the first prayer and the first devotion of the faithful and has been in use all through the centuries, from the time of the Apostles and disciples down to the present.

But it was only in the year 1214, however, that Holy Mother Church received the Rosary in its present form and according to the method we use today. It was given to the Church by Saint Dominic who had received it from the Blessed Virgin as a powerful means of converting the Albigensians and other sinners.

I will tell you the story of how he received it, which is found in the very well-known book De Dignitate Psalterii by Blessed Alan de la Roche. [1] Saint Dominic, seeing that the gravity of people's sins was hindering the conversion of the Albigensians, withdrew into a forest near Toulouse where he prayed unceasingly for three days and three nights. During this time he did nothing but weep and do harsh penances in order to appease the anger of Almighty God. He used his discipline so much that his body was lacerated, and finally he fell into a coma.

At this point Our Lady appeared to him, accompanied by three Angels, and she said:

"Dear Dominic, do you know which weapon the Blessed Trinity wants to use to reform the world?"

"Oh, my Lady," answered Saint Dominic, "you know far better than I do because next to your Son Jesus Christ you have always been the chief instrument of our salvation."

Then Our Lady replied: "I want you to know that, in this kind of warfare, the battering ram has always been the Angelic Psalter which is the foundation stone of the New Testament. Therefore if you want to reach these hardened souls and win them over to God, preach my Psalter."

So he arose, comforted, and burning with zeal for the conversion of the people in that district he made straight for the Cathedral. At once unseen Angels rang the bells to gather the people together and Saint Dominic began to preach.

At the very beginning of his sermon an appalling storm broke out, the earth shook, the sun was darkened, and there was so much thunder and lightning that all were very much afraid. Even greater was their fear when looking at a picture of Our Lady exposed in a prominent place they saw her raise her arms to Heaven three times to call down God's vengeance upon them if they failed to be converted, to amend their lives, and seek the protection of the Holy Mother of God.

God wished, by means of these supernatural phenomena, to spread the new devotion of the Holy Rosary and to make it more widely known.

At last, at the prayer of Saint Dominic, the storm came to an end, and he went on preaching. So fervently and compellingly did he explain the importance and value of the Holy Rosary that almost all the people of Toulouse embraced it and renounced their false beliefs. In a very short time a great improvement was seen in the town; people began leading Christian lives and gave up their former bad habits.

1. De Dignitate Psalterii. The importance and Beauty of the Holy Rosary, by Blessed Alan de la Roche, O.P., French Dominican Father and Apostle of the Holy Rosary.

St. Louis Marie de Montfort, The Secret of the Rosary, Second Rose: Origin

Please help me become a priest so I can preach the Rosary for the greater glory of God and the salvation of souls. Thank you! God bless you and yours.

Lead By Example

St. Louis Marie de Montfort, The Secret of the Rosary, Thirtieth Rose: Confraternity Privileges

Thursday, December 14, 2017

Immaculate Conception Bibliography


CONEGO MANOEL ANAQIM, O Genio Portuguez aos pés de Maria (Lisbon: Livraria Ferreira, 1904)

JOHN DELAVAN BRYANT, The Immaculate Conception of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God: A Dogma of the Catholic Church (Boston: Patrick Donahoe, 1855)

FR. JUNIPER B. CAROL, O.F.M., Mariology excerpt

Collegii Salmanticensis Fr. Discalceatorum B. Mariae de Monte Carmeli ... Cursus theologicus Summam Theologicam angelici doctoris D. Thomae complectens, vol. 8 (Rome: Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith, 1870)

FR. FRANCISCO DE LA CRUZ, O.P., Beatissimæ Virgini Genitrici Dei Mariæ Puritatem Suæ Conceptionis Manifestam (Lima: Juliana Sanctos de Saldaña 1657)

AUGUSTINO DE ROSKOVÁNY (BISHOP OF NITRA), Beata Virgo Maria in Suo Conceptu Immaculata Ex Monumentis Omnium Seculorum Demonstrata
Vol. 4 (Budapest, 1874),
Vol. 5 (Budapest, 1874),
Vol. 6 (Budapest, 1874),

J. J. FRAIGNER, Theologia Dogmatica et Moralis ad Usum Seminariorum (Paris: J. Lecoffre & Co., 1855), 167-182

FR. REGINALD GARRIGOU-LAGRANGE, O.P., Reality: A Synthesis of Thomistic Thought, c. 37, “Mariology”

MSGR. ROMUALD GENTILUCCI, The Life of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God, of Her Blessed Spouse, St. Joseph, and Holy Parents St. Joachim and St. Anne (New York: Edward Dunigan and Brother, 1859), 88-121

FREDERICK HOLWICK, "Immaculate Conception," The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 7 (New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910)

SYLVESTER JOSEPH HUNTER, S.J., Treatise 12, Chapter I: The Immaculate Conception, Outlines of Dogmatic Theology, vol. 2, 2nd ed. (New York: Longmans, Green, & Co., 1900), 560-566

POPE ST. JOHN PAUL II, Catechism of the Catholic Church § 490-494

FR. MARTIN JUGIE, A.A., L’Immaculée Conception dans l’Écriture sainte et dans la tradition orientale (Rome: Academia Mariana, 1952)

IDEM., Theologia dogmatica christianorum orientalium vols. 1-5

LUIGI CARDINAL LAMBRUSCHINI, A Polemical Treatise on the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin (New York: D. & J. Sadler & Co., 1855)

FR. XAVIER-MARIE LE BACHELET, "Immaculée Conception," Dictionnaire de théologie catholique (Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 1922), 7.1:845-1218 (PDF pages 427-613)

IDEM., “Immaculée Conception,” Dictionnaire apologétique de la foi catholique : contenant les preuves de la vérité de la religion et les réponses aux objections tirées des sciences humaines, ed. Adhémar d’Alès (Paris: Gabriel Beauchesne, 1916), 209-275

ST. ALPHONSUS LIGUORI (DOCTOR), “Part II, Discourse I,” The Glories of Mary, new rev. ed. (New York: P. J. Kennedy & Sons, 1888), 337-371

BISHOP JEAN-BAPTISTE MALOU, L'Immaculée Conception de la Bienheureuse Vierge Marie considérée comme dogme de foi (Brussels, H. Goemare, 1857)
vol. 1 <>
vol. 2 <>

FR. MICHAEL MÜLLER, C.Ss.R., God the Teacher of Mankind: A Plain, Comprehensive Examination of Christian Doctrine. The Apostle’s Creed (New York: Benziger Brothers, 1880), 207-208

IDEM., vol. 9 (New York: Benzinger Brothers, 1883), 181-183

JOHN F. MURPHY, Murphy, J. F., "Immaculate Heart of Mary," New Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 7, 2nd ed. (Detroit: Gale, 2003), 335-337

BL. JOHN HENRY CARDINAL NEWMAN, Certain Difficulties Felt By Anglicans in Catholic Teachings Considered, vol. 2, new ed. (New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1896)

EDWARD D. O'CONNOR, "Immaculate Conception," New Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 7, 2nd ed. (Detroit: Gale, 2003), 331-335

Official Documents Connected with the Definition of the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Latin and English, With a Complete List of the Cardinals and Prelates Present in the Basilica of St. Peter, the 8th December, 1854 (Baltimore: John Murphy & Co., 1855)

LUDWIG OTT, Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma, trans. James Canon Bastible, D.D. (Rockford, IL: TAN Books and Publishers, Inc., 1974), 199-202

FR. DOMINIC PALMIERI, S.J., Tractatus de Peccato Originali et de Immaculato Beatae Virginis Deiparae Conceptu (Rome: Iuvenum Opificum A. S. Iosepho, 1904)

CARLO PASSAGLIA, De immaculato Deiparae semper Virginis conceptu Caroli Passaglia commentarius, vol. 3 (Rome: Sacred Congregation for Propagation of the Faith, 1855)

FR. GIOVANNI PERRONE, S.J., De Immaculato B.V. Mariae Conceptu an dogmatico decreto definiri possit disquisitio theologica (Rome: John Baptist Marini and Bernard Morini, 1847)

BL. POPE PIUS IX, Bull “Ineffabilis Deus” (1854)

MSGR. JOSEPH POHLE, Mariology: A Dogmatic Treatise on the Blessed Virgin Mary, Mother of God, ed. Arthur Preuss, 3rd rev. ed. (St. Louis, MO: B. Herder Book Co., 1919), 39-82

DIEGO ANDRÉS ROCHA, De immaculata Deiparae conceptione sive de illius immunitate a peccato originali. Authore doctore D. Didaco Andraea Rocha Hispalensi quondam Limanae Academiae vespertinae legum cathedrae moderatore, deinde in Regali Cancellaria Quitensi fisci patrono, & senatore, demum electo fiscali Regalis Cancellariae Argentinae; nunc vero Regalis Cancellariae Limensis Criminum questore, & iudice (1670)

IDEM., Epistola gratificatoria, et quasi antidoralis D.D.D. Didaci Andres Rocha, criminum quaestoris, & iudicis in Regia Canecellaria Limana. : Pro responsione, et satisfactione alterius epistolae ab auctore acceptae, qua ipsum honorificauit illustrissimus princeps D. Fr. Payus de Ribera Mexicanus archiepiscopus, Nouae Hispaniae excellentissimus prorex. Ubi discutiuntur quaedam quasi erotemata, & problematicae disputationes circa immunitatem Deiparae â debito culpae in Adam, & circa immaturam huius quaestionis festinationem, impeditiuam negotij principalis circa immunitatem virginis à culpa originaria (1677)

CHRISTIAN STAMM, Mariologia seu potiores de s. Deipara quaestiones ex Ss. Patrum ac Theologorum mente (Paderborn: Junfermann Library, 1881)

WILLIAM BERNARD ULLATHORNE, The Immaculate Conception of the Mother of God: An Exposition (London: Richardson & Son, 1855)

JOSEPH WILHELM and THOMAS B. SCANNELL, A Manual of Catholic Theology Based on Scheeben’s “Dogmatik,” vol. 2, rev. 3rd ed. (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner, & Co. Ltd., 1908), 215-218

JOSEPH ZOLLER, Conceptus chronographicus de concepta sacra Deipara (Matthias Wolff, 1720) <>; see other works at <>